In this lesson, we will learn about Thomas Jefferson's view of the French Revolution. We will see that Jefferson was an early enthusiastic. Although Thomas Jefferson came to power determined to limit the reach of the When Jefferson learned that Spain had secretly ceded Louisiana to France in. Thomas Jefferson loved France and the French people. Certainly, in my own, where are all my friends, my relations, and the earliest and sweetest affections.
Thomas Jefferson had been living abroad for four years when political unrest began to heighten in France. Throughouthe watched events unfold and described the state of affairs with optimism, noting the bond between America and France: In the spring ofthe Marquis de Lafayette suggested that Jefferson outline his recommendations for them in written form.
The latter accordingly drafted a "charter of rights" that might be issued by Louis XVI. The modest proposal — an accommodation among the king, the nobility, and "the commons" — would be an introductory step toward a constitutional monarchy; 3 but nothing came of Jefferson's suggested compromise, a "lamentable error" from his point of view.
When French revolutionaries violently stormed the "Bastille" in mid-July, Jefferson was taken aback by the "astonishing train of events.
Late in August, Lafayette made a desperate appeal to Jefferson: We shall Be some Members of the National Assembly — eight of us whom I want to Coalize as Being the only Means to prevent a total dissolution and a civil war.
To the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, he felt obliged to describe the circumstances: The document's social and political ideals were proposed by Jefferson before the inauguration of Washington. He was inspired by the Enlightenment ideals of the sanctity of the individual, as well as by the writings of Locke and Montesquieu.
The committee initially thought that Adams should write the document, but Adams persuaded the committee to choose Jefferson. He drafted bills in three years, including laws to streamline the judicial system. Jefferson's proposed statutes provided for general education, which he considered the basis of "republican government". He took the lead in abolishing what he called "feudal and unnatural distinctions.
The entail laws made it perpetual: As a result, increasingly large plantations, worked by white tenant farmers and by black slaves, gained in size and wealth and political power in the eastern "Tidewater" tobacco areas. Jefferson escaped to Poplar Foresthis plantation to the west. A second daughter of that name was born the following year, but she died at age three.
Jefferson included his written responses in a book, Notes on the State of Virginia Jefferson included extensive data about the state's natural resources and economy, and wrote at length about slavery, miscegenationand his belief that blacks and whites could not live together as free people in one society because of justified resentments of the enslaved. Alexander Hamilton pushed for a pro-English version of neutrality—chiefly commercial ties with the most potent mercantile power in the world.
Even when the French Revolution spun out of control and began to devour its own partisans, Jefferson insisted that these bloody convulsions were only temporary excesses justified by the larger ideological issues at stake. This remained his unwavering position throughout the decade.
Thomas Jefferson | Biography, Political Career, & Facts | miyagi-marugoto2012.info
Even after he retired from office late inhe issued directives from Monticello opposing the Neutrality Act and the Jay Treaty as pacts with the British harlot and betrayals of our French brethren. His foreign-policy vision was resolutely moralistic and highly ideological, dominated by a dichotomous view of England as a corrupt and degenerate engine of despotism and France as the enlightened wave of the future.
American presidential election, Results of the American presidential election, Source: United States Office of the Federal Register. As Hamilton began to construct his extensive financial program—to include funding the national debt, assuming the state debts, and creating a national bank—Jefferson came to regard the consolidation of power at the federal level as a diabolical plot to subvert the true meaning of the American Revolution.
As Jefferson saw it, the entire Federalist commitment to an energetic central government with broad powers over the domestic economy replicated the arbitrary policies of Parliament and George III, which the American Revolution had supposedly repudiated as monarchical and aristocratic practices, incompatible with the principles of republicanism. All the major events of the decade—the creation of a national bank, the debate over the location of a national capital, the suppression of the Whiskey Rebellion in western Pennsylvania, the passage of the Jay Treatyand, most notoriously, the enforcement of the Alien and Sedition Acts —were viewed through this ideological lens.Jefferson French Revolution
By the middle years of the decade two distinctive political camps had emerged, calling themselves Federalists and Republicans later Democratic-Republicans. Not that modern-day political parties, with their mechanisms for raising money, selecting candidates, and waging election campaigns, were fully formed at this stage. But an embryonic version of the party structure was congealing, and Jefferson, assisted and advised by Madisonestablished the rudiments of the first opposition party in American politics under the Republican banner.
They were, in effect, inventing a modern form of political behaviour before there was any neutral vocabulary for talking about it. In he ran for the presidency against Adams, all the while claiming not to know that he was even a candidate.
The highly combustible political culture of the early republic reached a crescendo in the election ofone of the most fiercely contested campaigns in American history. The Federalist press described Jefferson as a pagan and atheist, a treasonable conspirator against the duly elected administrations of Washington and Adams, a utopian dreamer with anarchistic tendencies toward the role of government, and a cunning behind-the-scenes manipulator of Republican propaganda.
All these charges were gross exaggerations, save the last. Always operating through intermediaries, Jefferson paid several journalists to libel Adams, his old friend but current political enemy, and offered the vice presidency to Aaron Burr in return for delivering the electoral votes of New York.
In the final tally the 12 New York votes made the difference, with the tandem of Jefferson and Burr winning 73 to A quirk in the Constitution, subsequently corrected in the Twelfth Amendmentprevented electors from distinguishing between their choice of president and vice president, so Jefferson and Burr tied for the top spot, even though voter preference for Jefferson was incontestable.
The decision was thrown into the House of Representatives where, after several weeks of debate and backroom wheeling and dealing, Jefferson was elected on the 36th ballot. Presidency There was a good deal of nervous speculation whether the new American nation could survive a Jefferson presidency. This became the position of the Confederacy in His Federalist critics wondered how he could take an oath to preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States if his primary goal as president was to dismantle the federal institutions created by that very document.
As he rose to deliver his inaugural address on March 4,in the still-unfinished Capitol of the equally unfinished national capital on the Potomacthe mood was apprehensive. The most rabid alarmists had already been proved wrong, since the first transfer of power from one political regime to another had occurred peacefully, even routinely.
These reforms enjoyed considerable success for two reasons. First, the temporary cessation of the war between England and France for European supremacy permitted American merchants to trade with both sides and produced unprecedented national prosperity.
Second, in selecting Albert Gallatin as secretary of the Treasury, Jefferson placed one of the most capable managers of fiscal policy in the most strategic location. Gallatin, a Swiss-born prodigy with impeccable Republican credentials, dominated the cabinet discussions alongside Madison, the ever-loyal Jefferson disciple who served as secretary of state.
Actually there were very few cabinet discussions because Jefferson preferred to do the bulk of business within the executive branch in writing.
Crafting language on the page was his most obvious talent, and he required all cabinet officers to submit drafts of their recommendations, which he then edited and returned for their comments. The same textual approach applied to his dealings with Congress.
All of his annual messages were delivered in writing rather than in person. Indeed, apart from his two inaugural addresses, there is no record of Jefferson delivering any public speeches whatsoever. In part this was a function of his notoriously inadequate abilities as an orator, but it also reflected his desire to make the office of the presidency almost invisible.
His one gesture at visibility was to schedule weekly dinners when Congress was in session, which became famous for the quality of the wine, the pell-mell seating arrangements, and informal approach to etiquette—a clear defiance of European-style decorum.
The major achievement of his first term was also an act of defiance, though this time it involved defying his own principles. In Napoleon decided to consolidate his resources for a new round of the conflict with England by selling the vast Louisiana region, which stretched from the Mississippi Valley to the Rocky Mountains. Indeed, many historians regard it as the boldest executive action in American history.
But Jefferson never wavered, reasoning that the opportunity to double the national domain was too good to miss. Even before news that the purchase was approved reached the United States in JulyJefferson dispatched his private secretary, Meriwether Lewisto lead an expedition to explore the new acquisition and the lands beyond, all the way to the Pacific. Although the Federalist Party was dead as a national force, pockets of Federalist opposition still survived, especially in New England. Despite his eloquent testimonials to the need for a free press, Jefferson was outraged by the persistent attacks on his policies and character from those quarters, and he instructed the attorneys general in the recalcitrant states to seek indictments, in clear violation of his principled commitment to freedom of expression.
French Revolution | Thomas Jefferson's Monticello
He was equally heavy-handed in his treatment of Aaron Burr, who was tried for treason after leading a mysterious expedition into the American Southwest allegedly designed to detach that region from the United States with Burr crowned as its benevolent dictator.
He was overruled in the end by Chief Justice John Marshallwho sat as the judge in the trial. Moreover, the enforcement of the Embargo Act required the exercise of precisely those coercive powers by the federal government that Jefferson had previously opposed. By the time he left office in MarchJefferson was a tired and beaten man, anxious to escape the consequences of his futile efforts to preserve American neutrality and eager to embrace the two-term precedent established by Washington.
Retirement During the last 17 years of his life Jefferson maintained a crowded and active schedule.
He rose with the dawn each day, bathed his feet in cold water, then spent the morning on his correspondence one year he counted writing 1, letters and working in his garden. Each afternoon he took a two-hour ride around his grounds.
Dinner, served in the late afternoon, was usually an occasion to gather his daughter Martha and her 12 children, along with the inevitable visitors. Monticello became a veritable hotel during these years, on occasion housing 50 guests.
The lack of privacy caused Jefferson to build a separate house on his Bedford estate about 90 miles km from Monticello, where he periodically fled for seclusion.
Throughout his life Monticello remained a work-in-progress that had the appearance of a construction site.
A smaller but more architecturally distinctive mansion at Bedford, called Poplar Forest, was completed on schedule. It too embodied neoclassical principles but was shaped as a perfect octagon. As befitted an institution shaped by a believer in wholly voluntary and consensual networks of governance, there were no curricular requirements, no mandatory code of conduct except the self-enforced honour system, no president or administration.