Democratic Republic of Congo: Background and U.S. Relations - miyagi-marugoto2012.info
Feb 2, DR Congo - US Relations The DRC's relations with its neighbors have often been driven by security concerns, leading to intricate. Democratic Republic of the Congo–United States relations are the international relations between the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and the United. The United States established diplomatic relations with the Democratic Republic of the Congo (D.R.C.) in , following its independence from Belgium.
General elections are currently scheduled for December 23, On August 8,President Kabila surprised many observers by backing a loyal associate, Emmanuel Ramazani Shadary, as his chosen successor. With Shadary's nomination, Western diplomatic engagement may shift away from pressing Kabila to step aside, and toward ensuring that elections proceed as scheduled while assessing the credibility of the election process.
A scenario in which election results are criticized by local observers but accepted by key regional players—which would be similar to the last elections, in —may present challenges for U.
Other policy dilemmas may arise if the election date is again delayed or if the national election commission decides to disqualify top registered opposition candidates.
Shadary may face new challenges in forging relations with the donor community if his presidential bid is successful: Since the s, instability in eastern DRC has caused regional turmoil, severe human rights abuses, and an enduring humanitarian crisis. Neighboring countries have periodically backed Congolese rebel proxies, and the security vacuum has drawn in foreign-origin militias. State security forces have been implicated in serious abuses in conflict zones, including extrajudicial killings and mass rapes.
DR Congo - Foreign Relations
DRC is rich in minerals, forest resources, freshwater, and agricultural potential. Human Development Index latest available and its per capita gross domestic product GDP is among the world's lowest.
Industrial mining—particularly of copper and cobalt—is the mainstay of DRC's formal economy, although much of the population is engaged in informal economic activity including small-scale artisanal mining.
Despite growing investor interest in DRC's cobalt a key ingredient in electric car batteries, among other industrial usesgrowth has been limited by poor infrastructure, corruption, and bureaucratic practices that range from incompetent to predatory. The State Department's annual human rights report describes "corruption and a lack of transparency at all levels of government.
DRC at a Glance Population: French officialLingala lingua franca in the westSwahili lingua franca in the eastlocal languages Religions: Map created by CRS using data from Esri Historical Background With its resources, vast territory, and strategic location, DRC has long served as an arena of regional and international competition. His administration of the territory became notorious for its plunder of Congo's natural resources, mismanagement, and egregious abuses against the local population, and the Belgian government transitioned the territory into a formal colony in The country's early years following independence were plagued by instability, including a secession movement in southeastern Katanga and an army mutiny that culminated in Lumumba's murder in InColonel Joseph Mobutu aka Mobutu Sese Sekowho was involved in the mutiny against Lumumba, seized power in a coup and gradually instituted a more centralized and authoritarian form of government.Dem. Rep. of Congo Postpones Election While US Props up President Kabila
Mobutu's pursuit of an "authentic" indigenous Congolese national identity led him to rename the country Zaire. Mobutu's year reign was backed by the United States and other Western powers in the context of Cold War rivalry in Africa.
Domestic and international pressures mounted on Mobutu as the Cold War drew to a close and as the aging president's health faltered. Mobutu agreed in principle to a multiparty democratic system inbut he repeatedly delayed elections.
State institutions and the military fractured, while civil conflicts in neighboring states spilled over into DRC, diverting state resources and destabilizing local communities. In the aftermath of the Rwandan genocide, Hutu extremists who had orchestrated the killings in Rwanda fled across the border to Zaire, where they used refugee camps to remobilize against the new Tutsi-dominated Rwandan government, reportedly with Mobutu's backing.
Rwanda launched cross-border military operations against these groups, reportedly also targeting civilians on a large scale. The ensuing conflict came to be known as the "first" Congo war. With Mobutu's security forces and personal health in tatters, Laurent Kabila seized power in and renamed the country DRC. Mobutu died in exile in Morocco the same year.
U.S. Department of State
Tensions among the erstwhile allies soon erupted. Inamid growing popular hostility toward Rwandan soldiers and Congolese of Rwandan descent who had comprised the core of his rebel army, Kabila attempted to expel these forces, provoking a mutiny. Rwanda and Uganda then deployed troops into DRC and cultivated rebel groups as proxies, this time against Kabila. The rebels also fought each other.
Angola, Zimbabwe, Sudan, and others intervened on the government's side. The conflict, dubbed "Africa's World War," led to a major humanitarian crisis and is estimated by some experts to have directly and indirectly caused 3. His son Joseph Kabila assumed the presidency and pushed forward with a U.
A peace accord called for foreign troops to withdraw and for Congolese rebels to be integrated into the military and government. A transitional government took office in and citizens voted overwhelmingly to adopt a new constitution in a referendum in Landmark national elections were held inthe first relatively open multiparty vote in the country since independence.
International observers concluded that those elections were credible, despite procedural shortcomings and significant election-related violence.
President Kabila won reelection, following a tense and violent run-off against former rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba. Kabila was reelected in in a vote that international and domestic observers characterized as extremely flawed. DRC's relations with Uganda, Rwanda, and Angola remain complex and volatile, although the latter is sometimes viewed as a Kabila ally. Tensions with Rwanda have periodically flared due to reports of Rwandan support for Congolese rebel groups, which have fueled xenophobia in DRC.
InKabila and Rwandan President Paul Kagame agreed to reestablish diplomatic ties and subsequently launched joint military operations in DRC border regions.
A Rwandan-backed rebellion known as the M23 discussed below returned bilateral tensions to the fore, although tensions appear to have eased since then. The United States has pursued an active diplomatic strategy in the region and has supported internal reconciliation and democratization in the D.
Emory Taunt was ordered to explore as much of the river as possible and report on opportunities for Americans in the potentially rich African marketplace. Taunt concluded "To the best of my belief, there is no opening on, or in the vicinity of, the Lower Congo for an American firm to establish, at present, with a reasonable prospect of success.
A little more than five years later, Taunt, 39, was buried near the place he had first come ashore in Africa. The supplies of uranium ore in the United States were not extensive. Although there was some good ore in Canada and in Czechoslovakia, the Belgian Congo was the most important source. By mid, physicists Leo Szilard and Eugene P. Wigner became convinced that it was high time to take steps to keep the uranium ore of the Belgian Congo out of German hands. It occurred to the two physicists that Albert Einstein was the logical person to alert the Belgians, for he knew the royal family.
Congo, Republic of the
They saw Einstein, who agreed to dictate a letter of warning. Inthe American government made an overture to the Union Miniere du Haut Katanga, the company that owned the Congo mines. It was though that if Britain and the United States could augment their own resources with the ore of the Congo, they would have over 90 percent of the world's likely supply.
This has led to some normalisation in relations between the DRC and both Uganda and Rwanda, though tensions remain, largely due to the continued presence of rebel groups on DRC territory. UN sanctions UNSCRsand also impose restrictions on the sale or supply of arms and related material to persons in States neighbouring Rwanda, including DRC, when the goods in question were intended for use in Rwanda.
In Octoberwith significant U. Following up on enhanced military cooperation with Rwanda and Uganda, the DRC re-established full diplomatic relations with Rwanda, Burundi, and Uganda in The meetings were the first heads-of-state meetings between the DRC and Rwanda in over 10 years.
Democratic Republic of the Congo–United States relations
Relations with Angola had been tense, but a recent visit by President Kabila has eased tensions and given hopes of a lasting rapprochement. The DRC also established diplomatic relations with its newest neighbor, the Republic of South Sudan, after the latter gained its independence on July 9, The term "balkanization" has its own special meaning in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where it refers to a conspiracy theory that foreign interests seek to divide the DRC into smaller client states in order to facilitate access to the country's vast mineral reserves.
Many prominent Congolese are quick to assert that United States is among the foreign powers poised to "balkanize" the DRC, just as many Congolese appear to believe that the U. It is not clear how broad-based such views are or if they result primarily from government manipulation of public opinion. Many blame the conflict that killed millions of Congolese between and on the Rwandans, with support from the USG, turning the DRC into a vassal state of Rwanda, which it is claimed it remains today.