Uncovering the Relationship Between Genes and Proteins - ATA Scientific
How do chromosomes, DNA and genes all fit together? We can use the analogy of a city to better understand the relationship between DNA molecules, genes. Describe the relationship between genes, nucleic acids, amino acids, and proteins. DNA is a specific nucleic acid that directs protein making in all living things. Each gene tells the cell how to put together the building blocks for one specific protein. However, the gene (DNA) sits inside a different compartment of the cell.
For example, some amino acids attract water, and others are repelled by it.
Some amino acids can form weak bonds to each other, but others cannot. Proteins that catalyze accelerate chemical reactions, for example, have "pockets," which can bind specific chemicals and make it easier for a particular reaction to occur.
Variations in the DNA code of a gene can change either the structure of a protein or when and where it is produced.
If these variations change the protein structure, they could also change its function. For example, a single, specific mutation in hemoglobin -- the oxygen-carrying protein abundant in your red blood cells -- affects oxygen transport and is enough to cause sickle-cell anemia. Traits Variations in a gene can affect traits in several ways.
Variations in proteins involved in growth and development, for example, can give rise to differences in physical features like height. Pigments of skin and hair color are produced by enzymes, proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. Variations in both the structure and quantity of the proteins produced give rise to different amounts of skin and hair pigment and therefore different colors of hair and skin.
A gene consists of a long combination of four different nucleotide bases namely adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine. All living things depend on genes as they specify all proteins and functional RNA chains.
Relationship Between DNA Bases Genes, Proteins and Traits | Sciencing
Proteins are large, complex molecules that play many critical roles in the body. They are necessary for building the structural components of the human body, such as muscles and organs. Proteins also determine how the organism looks, how well its body metabolises food or fights infection and sometimes even how it behaves.
Proteins are chains of chemical building blocks called amino acids.
What is the relationship between DNA, genes and chromosomes? | Yahoo Answers
A protein may contain a few amino acids or it could have several thousands. The size of a protein is an important physical characteristic that provides useful information including changes in conformation, aggregation state and denaturation.
Protein scientists often use particle size analysers in their studies to discuss protein size or molecular weight. Archibald Garrod Archibald Garrod was one of the first scientists to propose that genes controlled the function of proteins. Inhe published his observations regarding patients whose urine turned black.
This condition known as alkaptonuria happens when there is a buildup of the chemical homogentisate, which causes the darkening of urine.