Definition of Terrorism – Social and Political Effects
national attacks, have their nationals commit transnational attacks, and are more How does the relationship between state failure and transnational terrorism. Editor's note: The Islamic State has claimed responsibility for an attack at when a weaker person, or group, is fighting against a powerful nation-state. Nations also use terrorism tactics in other countries to safeguard their. Antifascist Resistance Groups First of October (Grupos de Ulster Defense Association/Ulster Freedom Fighters . Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the.
Thirdly, the violence conveys messages and threats in order to communicate and gain social control. Agreement on definitions of terrorism will assist the research and study which may progress to counter measures for the benefit of democratic governments and society. Legal Profession The legal profession desires a definition that can be used for the successful prosecution and conviction of accused terrorists.
Defence or an appeal by an accused terrorist is easier if the crimes are ambiguously defined. This Act emphasises the danger to human life, covers the critical infrastructure and key resources, but also includes the psychological and political aspects.
It is primarily legalistic but does acknowledge the psychological, social and political aims of such groups. Members of the group that planned a suicide attack on Holsworthy Army Barracks were prosecuted and convicted under anti-terrorism legislation.
Prosecutors in Australia and overseas can have more success using conventional charges under the criminal code because of the imprecision of the legal definition of terrorism, particularly if a violent terrorist act has taken place, whereas anti-terrorist legislation becomes more relevant if there is a threat of violence or if the terrorist act is still in the planning stage Accurate legal definition of terrorism is important for society and for governance to enable successful investigation and prosecution of terrorists within the established judicial system.
What is terrorism? What do terrorists want?
Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorist Agencies Law enforcement agencies involved in counter-terrorism and intelligence e. FBI, Special Branch of Scotland Yard, Australian Federal Police Counter-Terrorism need definitions of terrorism as guidelines for their task and legal endorsement for duties which are close to and sometimes over the boundaries of civil liberty.
Consequently their definitions have more emphasis on actions and criminality than motivation and psychology so that the investigation of individuals and groups can be justified more on the basis of their activities rather than their presumed motives.
Actual acts of terrorist violence are emphasised above the threats of the violence. These definitions can have significant social and political implications.
They can benefit society by empowering effective counter-terrorism measures. They can harm society if they allow measures that cross the boundaries of civil liberties. Governments and Political Parties There are two reasons why politicians or governments will place importance on the definition of terrorism.
An example is President George W.Terrorist attacks: Why France?
A side benefit for governments is the opportunity to introduce laws that are more repressive than is usually the case.
The laws may be directed to terrorism but frequently are sufficiently extensive or intrusive to increase government power generally. Citizens are more accepting of the loss of individual civil rights in the name of counter-terrorism. Government abuse is an over-reaction to terrorism and can be followed by a backlash by citizens.
Truthful definitions of terrorism by politicians can help reassure and educate the public and preserve their civil rights. Secondly, governments and politicians can use definitions of terrorism to repress, victimise or demonise their opponents, civilians, political bodies and religions.
Misuse of the definition of terrorism can have far-reaching social and political consequences. Political parties and religions can be outlawed and persecuted. An individual who is convincingly defined as a terrorist loses many civil rights.
If they happen to reside in certain areas of Afghanistan or Pakistan, they are at risk of being killed by a drone. They prefer terms such as freedom fighter, guerrilla, insurgent and revolutionary. Terrifying an innocent person…. Whereas terrorising oppressors and criminals and thieves and robbers is necessary for the safety of people and protection of their property…. The terrorism we practise is of the commendable kind for it is directed at the tyrants and the aggressors and the enemies of Allah, the tyrants, the traitors who commit acts of treason against their own countries and their own faith and their own prophet and their own nation.
Terrorising those and punishing them are necessary measures to straighten things and to make them right. Terrorism will exist indefinitely because there will always be individuals and groups that get reassurance and motivation from this type of self-justification.
Terrorism needs to be accurately defined by the ADF so that it can pursue this task appropriately. Searching the ADF website does not reveal a precise definition but does reveal past discussion papers which have confirmed that a clear definition is needed to help future planning of counter-terrorist measures as distinct from planning for conventional military action. The Department of Defence publishes an annual update which includes a section on terrorism but does not define the term.
The Australian Federal Government published a White Paper on Counter-Terrorism in but it does not include a definition of terrorism Doctors, particularly military doctors or doctors involved in humanitarian assistance, can be faced with ethical or judgmental decisions when treating suspected terrorists.
Terrorists are not all after the same thing. Terrorists often justify their bloody acts on the basis of perceived social, economic and political unfairness. Or they take inspiration from religious beliefs or spiritual principles. Many forms of terrorism were inspired by warfare between races, struggles between the rich and poor or battles between political outcasts and elites. The former cartel of Medellin are considered narco-terrorists because they combine drug trafficking with terrorism tactics to intimidate government and population.
Many terrorist groups are inspired by a specific interpretation of religious or prophetic scriptures. Al-Qaida and IS are two related groups that justify their violent actions as part of a crusade against nonbelievers. IS wants to establish a Caliphateor an Islamic-ruled state.
Definition of Terrorism – Social and Political Effects
How different terrorist groups act is informed by what they are trying to achieve. Some adopt a reactionary perspective aimed at stopping or resisting social, economic and political changes. Others adopt a revolutionary doctrine and want to provoke change. Is terrorism getting worse? Despite the intensity of media coverage and public perception, terrorism is actually not more frequent today than a few decades ago. Some experts believe terrorism peaked during the s. Despite the recent attacks, the U.
In the United States, terrorism attacks were in sharp decline from todecreasing from approximately incidents a year to fewer than Worldwide, terrorism is highly concentrated in a handful of countries.
Terrorist attacks in were mainly concentrated in Afghanistan, Iraq, Nigeria, Pakistan and Syria. These countries saw 78 percent of the deaths and 57 percent of all attacks in the world.