International Conference, CSEE , Wuhan, China, August , and bit rate under the premise of effectively improve the efficiency of the encoder. the video sequence provided by the correlation between the time information is 24(5), 45–48 () Algorithm of Multiple Sensitive Attributes Privacy Based on . ity metrics such as the join time, buffering ratio, average bitrate, rendering centage of time spent in buffering (buffering ratio) has the largest impact on the user users are more sensitive to each buffering event compared to the. .. of a VoD system deployed by China Telecom  focusing on modeling user. It is the ratio between the maximum signal measured to the smallest part that can be A data acquisition system specified to have a bit resolution may also.
Total accuracy is therefore equal to the sum of the two: An example of this is illustrated in Table 1. For example, measure a steady state signal many times. In this case if the values are close together then it has a high degree of precision or repeatability. The values do not have to be the true values just grouped together. Take the average of the measurements and the difference is between it and the true value is accuracy.
Resolution Resolution can be expressed in two ways: It is the degree to which a change can be theoretically detected, usually expressed as a number of bits. This relates the number of bits of resolution to the actual voltage measurements.
In order to determine the resolution of a system in terms of voltage, we have to make a few calculations. Next, determine the smallest possible increment we can detect at 16 bits.
Unfortunately, other factors enter the equation to diminish the theoretical number of bits that can be used, such as noise. A data acquisition system specified to have a bit resolution may also contain 16 counts of noise. A technique called averaging can improve the resolution, but it sacrifices speed.
Averaging reduces the noise by the square root of the number of samples, therefore it requires multiple readings to be added together and then divided by the total number of samples. However, this technique cannot reduce the affects of non-linearity, and the noise must have a Gaussian distribution. Sensitivity Sensitivity is an absolute quantity, the smallest absolute amount of change that can be detected by a measurement.
This will dictate how the sensor responds. For example, take a sensor that is rated for units with an output voltage of volts V. This means that at 1 volt the equivalent measurement is units or 1 mV equals one unit.
Twenty six trading partners of China were used in the construction of the Chinese real exchange rate.
Are Chinese Exports Sensitive to Changes in the Exchange Rate?
Motivated by the theoretical model, we also split the Chinese real exchange rate into two components. The first component,is one in which the movements in the real exchange rate are due to changes in the bilateral real exchange rates with respect to the other major emerging Asian economies which are the main sources of China's imports of parts and components.
The second component,is one in which the movements in the real exchange rate are due to changes in the bilateral real exchange rates with respect to the rest of the 26 economies in China's full index, including its main advanced-economy trading partners, such as the United States, the euro area, and Japan.
The quarterly growth rate of the aggregate real exchange rate index and the contribution to this of each of its two components is presented in Figure 7. Note that the two components generally move in the same direction indicating that when the RMB appreciates or depreciates against the non-emerging Asian currencies, it also moves in the same direction against the emerging Asian currencies.
Also, generally, the contribution of the non-emerging Asian currencies the blue dotted line to movements in the overall index is greater than that of the emerging Asian currencies the dashed red linealthough there are some exceptions such as during the Asian Crisis years when the overall real appreciation of the Chinese currency was largely driven by RMB appreciation against other Asian currencies. The proxy for supply-side factors for Chinese exports that seemed to work best is based on FDI.
Specifically, starting ina cumulative stock series was constructed from FDI flows in each period and the rate of growth this stock series,was used to roughly capture supply-side influences on Chinese exports. We started with a lag length of four for all the variables in the estimated equations.
The model reduction was guided by two rules. First, the reduced model had to satisfy a battery of statistical tests for model adequacy, including no autocorrelation in the error terms. Second, within the models that satisfied the statistical criteria, choice of the final model used was guided by the minimization of the Hannan-Quinn HQ information criterion, the Schwartz criterion SCand the Akaike information criterion AIC.
However, a lot of structural changes were taking place in the Chinese economy in the early s, and the economy also suffered from quite high rates of inflation in that period. The month CPI inflation rate peaked in late at nearly 30 percent and had not come down into single digits until the beginning of Thus we begin our estimation period in China's entry into the WTO in December was also a structural break, and a case might be made for starting the sample after However, this would not leave us with enough quarterly observations.
Instead, an attempt was made to partly address the WTO-related structural break problem by including a dummy variable for China's WTO membership years since The results for the model using foreign consumption are presented in table 1. The reported test statistics show that model adequacy criteria are satisfied. The results indicate that real exchange rate appreciations have contemporaneous and lagged negative effects on real export growth, while foreign consumption growth has positive effects.
The growth of the FDI capital stock has first a positive effect and then a small, but significant, negative one later on export growth. The long-run solution of the statistical model, also presented in table 1, shows that a one percentage point increase in the annual rate of appreciation of the real exchange rate would have a cumulative negative effect on real export growth of 1.
Chinese Technology Transfer Challenges to U.S. Export Control Policy
A one percentage point increase in foreign consumption growth would increase export growth by 5. Also, a 1 percentage point increase in the growth rate of the FDI capital stock raises export growth by a cumulative and statistically significant 0. This suggests significant supply-side factors at work in the determination of the equilibrium growth rate of exports.
All the estimated effects are in line with theory.
Accuracy, Precision, Resolution, and Sensitivity
The estimated model also indicates a large and significant effect on export growth associated with China's entry into WTO. Table 2 presents the results for the total exports model in which the foreign consumption growth variable is replaced by a foreign real GDP growth variable.
This model also passes the statistical adequacy tests. Qualitatively, very similar results are obtained, except that the cumulative effect of a rise in the rate of appreciation of the real exchange rate on export growth is smaller in magnitude, at about The results when separate equations are estimated for non-processed and processed exports but still using an aggregate real exchange rate index are reported in tables 3 and 4 for the model with foreign consumption and tables 5 and 6 for the model with foreign output.
The battery of statistical tests are satisfied for all these models. The cumulative effect of a 1 percentage point appreciation in the real exchange rate on growth of non-processing exports is However, the long-run elasticity of exports with respect to a rise in foreign consumption is much higher at Also, note that WTO appears to have a significant effect on growth of non-processing exports only and not processing exports, where the WTO dummy was dropped because of lack of statistical significance.
The fit of the non-processing exports equation, with an of 0. The results from using foreign output growth instead of foreign consumption growth are qualitatively similar but again the magnitudes are a bit different, as can be seen from tables 5 and 6. Specifically, the cumulative effect of foreign output growth on growth of non-processing exports is somewhat smaller at 6. The real exchange rate elasticities are somewhat lower for both processing and non-processing exports and roughly equal to each other in these models at In sum, incorporating the most up to date recent data on real exchange rate movements gives us price effects on real exports that are statistically significant and consistently toward the upper end of the range that has been found in earlier studies.
In particular, we do not get the insignificant or wrong-signed effects that some in the literature have found. One important focus of our paper in light of the importance of China's processing trade was stated to be a distinction between Chinese real exchange rate movements against other emerging Asian economies versus Chinese real exchange rate movements against its other important trading partners.
We now turn to results which examine whether the two components of the real exchange rate have different effects as predicted by the theoretical model. The results for non-processing exports and processing exports are presented in tables 7 and 8, respectively, for the model using foreign consumption.
As can be seen from table 7, the fit of the non-processing exports equation is quite good with an of 0. The effects of foreign consumption growth is large, as before, with a cumulative effect of 7.Why Chinese Manufacturing Wins
In addition, real appreciation of the RMB against the other emerging Asian currencies consistently has a negative effect on growth of non-processing exports, whereas real appreciation against other currencies has dynamic effects that vary in sign over time.
In terms of the cumulative effects, a 1 percentage point increase in the rate of appreciation of the RMB against other emerging Asian currencies has a statistically significant, cumulative negative effect of 3. The effect of the FDI capital stock on non-processing exports is positive and statistically significant.
As in the earlier specification with the overall real exchange rate index, the WTO effect on non-processing export growth is large and highly significant. As can be seen from table 8, for processing exports, the effects of foreign consumption growth are similar to those of non-processing exports presented above, but the effects of the real exchange rate are quite different.
The long-run elasticity with respect to foreign consumption is still more than 7 percentage points. However, real exchange rate appreciation of the RMB against the other emerging Asian currencies has a positive and insignificant cumulative effect on processing exports growth, whereas a real exchange rate appreciation against other currencies has a cumulative negative, and statistically significant, effect of 1.
These results imply that if there was unilateral appreciation of the RMBthe fall in processing exports would be much less than if all of the emerging Asian regions's exchange rates appreciated against other currencies. Although we have followed a totally different approach, these results are quite consistent with those of Thorbecke and Smith Going back to our analysis of processing exports, the supply side variable was not significant and was dropped from the processing exports equation, according to the statistical criteria used.
The of the regression was 0.
U.S. Department of State
How do these results hold up to the predictions of the theoretical model presented earlier? The positive supply side effects and the positive effects of foreign consumption are in line with the theory, although throughout our analysis we find the estimated income effects whether using foreign consumption or foreign output to be implausibly large in magnitude, as have some others such as Cheung et al The insignificant effects on processing exports of a real RMB appreciation against other emerging Asian currencies, from which China imports much of its parts and components, and clearly significant negative effects of real RMB appreciation against non-emerging Asian currencies are quite consistent with the predicted model.
The negative effects of each type of real exchange appreciation on non-processing exports is also consistent with the theory. However, the exact theoretical model presented implies an equal elasticity of non-processing exports with respect each type of real exchange rate movement, which does not hold up. The results instead suggest that the price elasticity of final goods imported from China is higher in the case of other emerging Asian economies than in the case of China's advanced-economy trading partners.
Now consider what happens when foreign consumption growth is replaced by foreign output growth. The results are presented in tables 9 and