To avoid escalation of a child's aggression, parents may give in to their “It's a Two-Way Street: The Bidirectional Relationship Between Parenting and. Travis Hirschi, Causes of Delinquency (Berkeley: University of California Press, “It's a Two-Way Street: The Bidirectional Relationship Between Parenting and. Ph.D. Crime, Law, and Justice, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park “It's a two-way street: The bidirectional relationship between parenting.
The coefficients in parentheses correspond to males coefficients. All the parenting-related variables were significantly and positively intercorrelated similarly in females and males see Table 2. Parental knowledge, parental support, and adolescent disclosure were significantly and negatively correlated with deviant peer affiliations in both genders, and significantly and negatively correlated with problematic types of behaviour, exclusively in males in the case of violent behaviour.
Parental solicitation was only significantly and negatively correlated with deviant peers, violent and nonviolent behaviour in males, and parental control was not significantly correlated with any antisocial-related variable in females nor males.
Regarding antisocial-related variables, deviant peers, violent behaviour, nonviolent behaviour, and substance use were significantly and positively intercorrelated in both genders. Structural Equation Models for Mediation: Direct and Indirect Effects Figure 1 Conceptual parenting model examining direct and mediation effects of parenting variables i. Affiliations on different types of problematic behaviour i. All the tested structural equation models have obtained mostly acceptable fit indexes see Table 3.
It's a two-way street: the bidirectional relationship between parenting and delinquency.
Regarding the parenting model see Figure 1three structural models were tested, one for each type of problematic behaviour. Parental knowledge in T1 significantly and negatively predicted deviant peer affiliations in T2 for both genders in the three models, and deviant peers in T2 were significantly and positively related to violent behaviour, nonviolent behaviour, and substance use in T2 for both genders.
In addition, parental knowledge in T1 also significantly and negatively predicted substance use in T2 for males. Parental support did not predict any variable in T2 see Table 4. Regarding the explained variance by the parenting model, R2 of violent behaviour was.
Figure 2 Conceptual sources model examining direct and mediation effects of the sources of parental knowledge i. Only adolescent disclosure in T1 significantly and negatively predicted deviant peer affiliations in T2 for females in the three models, and deviant peers in T2 was significantly and positively related to violent behaviour, nonviolent behaviour, and substance use in T2 for both genders.
Regarding the explained variance by the sources model, R2 of violent behaviour was. For the parenting model see Figure 1the bootstrapping results indicated that only parental knowledge in T1 significantly predicted violent behaviour, nonviolent behaviour, and substance use in T2 through the mediation of deviant peer affiliations for both females and males.
For the sources model see Figure 2the bootstrapping results indicated that no source of parental knowledge in T1 significantly predicted problematic behaviour in T2 through deviant peers. Discussion The current study intended to address the gap about the lack of studies analysing longitudinally the mediation effects of deviant peers on the relationship between parenting practices and problematic behaviour in the Spanish context.
In addition, this study aimed to address the inconsistencies in previous research regarding the significance of parenting practices in the prediction of problematic behaviour. Therefore, the current study aimed to confirm the direct effects of several parenting variables from the general to specific practices on later problematic behaviour, as well as the mediation effects of deviant peers in normative Spanish adolescents.
Regarding the results of the parenting model i. Moreover, only prospective indirect effects of parental knowledge were significant for both males and females. These findings add evidence regarding the effects of parental knowledge through deviant peers in the Spanish context, as cross-sectional studies has previously suggested e.
The consistence of parental knowledge as a predictor of deviant associations directly and problematic behaviour indirectly was confirmed across types of behaviour and across genders. In addition, as other research has similarly found e. Traditionally, the female gender has been associated with a greater vulnerability to factors within the family context for a review, see Javdani et al. In this regard, as in the current work, previous studies have found that the direct effects of low levels of parental knowledge on substance use actually seem to be stronger for males e.
Regarding the other main variable included in the parenting model, no significant direct or indirect effects were found for parental support for any type of problematic behaviour for females or males.
Low levels of supportive and warmth parent-child relationships have been generally proposed as a risk factor of problematic behaviour in adolescence e.
However, similarly to the findings of the current study, several studies have found that support-related practices e. On the other hand, the results of the sources model i. Thus, in such model deviant peer affiliations were concurrently related to all the types of problematic behaviour for both genders, in line with previous research e.
Furthermore, contrary to the results found in other studies e. Only prospective direct effects of adolescent disclosure on deviant peer affiliations were significant for females and, consequently, indirect effects of disclosure on antisocial behaviour and substance use were only significant for females. Nevertheless, no significant direct or indirect effects were found for parental control or parental solicitation for any type of problematic behaviour for females or males. However, as previously mentioned, such inconsistencies in the findings may be derived from differences in the operationalisation of the variables.
Parenting practices, and specifically the sources of parental knowledge, are constructs highly intercorrelated. Therefore, the broad nature of the parenting practices, together with a lack of clarity in the measures used in the studies, may lead to widespread results in the field.
To sum up, the current results partially support the hypothesis one direct effects of parenting practices and three indirect effects of parenting practices for parental knowledge and adolescent disclosure, but not for parental support, parental control, and parental solicitation.
The results also support the hypothesis two direct effects of deviant peer affiliations. Lastly, the results of this study partially support the hypothesis regarding the fact that no gender differences exist in direct and mediated relationships. The current findings were mostly similar for both genders: As exceptions, on the one hand, low levels of parental knowledge directly predicted frequency of substance use for males and, on the other hand, low levels of adolescent disclosure indirectly predicted antisocial behaviour and substance use through deviant peers for females.
Furthermore, the explained variance of both types of antisocial behaviour was higher in males and the explained variance of substance use was higher in females; however, deviant affiliations were hardly explained by the models. Direct exposure victimization and indirect exposure witnessing is assessed in the contexts of school, street, home, and in the TV. Each item is rated on a scale ranging from 1 never to 5 every day.
In this study, alpha coefficient was. Regarding EV at school, alpha coefficients were. For EV in the community, alpha coefficients were. Finally, alpha coefficient for EV at TV was. The WS is comprised of 20 items, divided into two factors: Each factor consists of 10 items rated on a scale ranging from 1 never to 5 always. Example items of this subscale are: Concretely, only some of the subscales referring to a hostile perception and to social problem-solving skills, that have been previously found to be significant in CPV cases e.
Parents were informed about the aim of this study and the confidentiality of the data. In addition, adolescents were also informed about these aspects and given the opportunity to refuse the assessment. To ensure confidentiality, each participant received an identification code. No incentive was offered in exchange for participation. The authors conducted individually the evaluations in the institution where the adolescent was allocated to comply with the legal disposition imposed by the Juvenile Court.
Regarding the NO group, only those who did not have criminal records or antisocial behaviors were included in the research. The school-counselling department provided this information.
First, authorization by the high school direction was obtained. Then, the process to obtain parents and adolescents consent was similar to the offender groups. Finally, participants completed the questionnaires in their classrooms. Data Analysis To examine significant group differences in the Exposure to Violence, a MANOVA with group factor as independent variable was used, including the eta squared statistic to explore the effect size and the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons.
Then, a logistic regression to predict differences according to the presence or absence of CPV, with the types of EV as predictors, was performed. Logistic regression is appropriate here because it employs as dichotomous dependent variable the presence or absence of CPV.
The presence of CPV was given a value of 1 in the parameter-coding scheme and the absence of CPV was given a value of 0. Finally, a Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was used to explore the relations among exposure to violence and the rest of social-cognitive variables, performing this analysis for each group. Table 1 shows the descriptive statistics for these variables.
Furthermore, focus group discussions were held with learners as such discussions promoted self-disclosure among participants De Vos et al.
Field notes made while observing behaviour and activities at the research site Creswell, were taken during the Focus group discussions FGDs and the interviews. Individual interviews and FGDs were guided by the use of three sets of interview schedules: Krysik and Finn contend that in qualitative research the goal is to understand the phenomenon studied rather than generalisation, and as such data saturation is reached when the participants repeat the same information, at which point the data-collection process is terminated.
Data analysis Thematic data analysis according to Creswell's five steps was conducted after the interviews, focus group discussions and field notes had been transcribed. Other ethical considerations involved signed consent forms after participants' were provided with full information on the aims and objectives of the study. Consent for the children was obtained from the social worker, who was their legal custodian.
It's a two-way street: the bidirectional relationship between parenting and delinquency.
The informed consent form included adequate information about the research De Vos et al. The participants were assured of confidentiality and their right to anonymity, meaning that the data shared during the data-collection process would not be disclosed, or their identity revealed, to anyone De Vos et al. Permission to audio record during data collection was obtained. Trustworthiness The principles of credibility, dependability, transferability and conformability were applied to assess trustworthiness De Vos et al.
Credibility was achieved through the researcher spending extended time with participants, collecting data and seeking clarification from participants De Vos et al. Dependability, which is concerned with the replicability and consistency of results, was were achieved by using the same data-collection tools for different participants Shenton, Dependability was further enhanced by the use of the services of an independent coder.
All participants were male, as the school currently only admits male students. The school social worker, two teachers and a counsellor were also interviewed.
Demographic details are summarised in Table 1. Ten families see Table 2 in three different areas of Botswana Maun village, Letlhakane village near Orapa Township, and Mahalapye villagewere interviewed. Several themes emerged from the transcribed data: However, themes that will be discussed in this paper relates to families' experiences with delinquent children, as well as the challenges families face in dealing with delinquent children. Families' experiences with delinquent children The findings of this study suggest that families experience the same ordeal of psychological pain, shame and embarrassment from delinquent behaviour as well as family disintegration when dealing with delinquent children.
Similarly, they are all delighted when children reform. Experienced shame and embarrassment Most of the interviewed families felt that the display of children's bad behaviour resulted in familial humiliation. This was common among all families.
It was like I am pulling my mom's name in the mud, and also destroying my own name " FGD 01 "Some of them were eating at the dumping site and it pains because people think they are not fed at home. In addition, Selwyn and Meakings assert that adoptive parents were ashamed of failing their adoptive children, as they had been evaluated and found to be fit to raise these children, as the responses below indicate: It is not easy raising children that are not yours" Interview Family 01, Maun.
You feel useless, as if there is nothing you can do. It is difficult to raise someone's child because you cannot treat him or her like your own. For example, if they misbehave, you do not care much, but your own child you get worried" Interview Family 10, Mahalapye The findings of this study indicated that most families were not happy that their children are not at school. Experienced psychological pain Almost all the participants expressed the same sentiments about the effects of children's bad behaviour on the entire family.
The families interviewed believed that it was hurtful, as well as stressful, and was not easy to deal with. The situation caused both familial distress and disturbed family, friends and neighbours: I remember when I was accused to have impregnated a girl, she fainted" FGD 05 "It is generally painful or hurting to some families Some parents come here crying saying, 'I do not want to see my child go through what I went through'.
Another parent came here crying. Reasons for delinquent behaviour Family is uncertain about what led to delinquent behaviour The results suggested that most families were helpless, not knowing what really led to their children's antisocial and criminal behaviour.
Parents often internalised feelings of guilt as they considered how they may have either contributed towards or might have prevented their child's delinquent behaviour.
Ultimately, they believed that they had done their best, but could not prevent it.
They started blaming their children's behaviour on other people God, bad friends, witches, neighbours and even teachers. However, the children confirmed some of the suspicions of their families and staff members as indicated below: They messed up with my mind" FGD 02 "I was not living well, always had pain in my heart, asking myself so many questions like what is wrong with my child" Interview Family 09 Letlhakane Poverty Some participants associated their children's bad behaviour with poverty.
Children's problem behaviour may also have developed because of negative parenting as a result of the parental mental problems and inter-parental fights associated with financial stress Ponnet, They reported that the environment contributed to child delinquency, as their neighbours were drinking too much alcohol and did not value education.
Consequently, they were not encouraging children to go to school. Environment contributes to such behaviour. Bocar, Mercado, Macahis and Serad confirm that community attitudes or certain behaviours, such as alcohol and drugs use by individuals in a certain neighbourhood, could contribute to child delinquency. Additionally, the bioecological systems theory attests to the notion that the environment influences the child's development and behaviour, since there is a reciprocal relationship between the two Lewthwaite, ; Bronfenbrenner, Substance abuse The comment "I ran away from school because I was bullied by others at school.
They used to make us steal from others. I ended up drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes" FGD 04 indicates that fear could lead to truancy among learners, fuelling school non-attendance. This exposes adolescents to negative influences, such as using alcohol and smoking cigarettes at a young age. Children confirmed some of their families' suspicions that they were indeed influenced by friends.
This is according to the study by Mason, Mennis, Linker, Bares and Zaharakiswho found that substance use could develop as result of peer influence. Some participants in this study said: He influenced me since he is older than me, he used to buy cigarettes and asked me to smoke.
My friend used to tell me to sniff glue to be a man lejitabut I refused All this happened due to friend's influence, right now the other one is in jail" FGD 05 "We used to go and break in at my aunt's place since we knew she liked going to church. We influenced each other as friends to do bad things" FGD 05 Staff members were of the opinion that children copy behaviour or learn from their family members. For example, you will find traditional beer is made in the home and parent's drink, so the child grows up knowing that it is okay to drink.
Families with children who display delinquent behaviour also experience discrimination and judgement from the societies in which they reside, as illustrated by the discussion of the next theme.
Consequences of delinquent behaviour Family disintegration Parents are forced to send their children to Bana Ba Metsi School as a result of their bad behaviour with the hope of rehabilitating them. Family separation caused uncertainties in some families, as they believed that it was their responsibility to reside with and care for their children. Some families were quoted as follows: The separation of children from their families troubles the parents, as they believe it is their responsibility to care for their children.
In addition, the chronosystem layer of the ecological systems theory signifies this separation of families from their children as a state in which changes in events occur in their environment Wilmshurst, Happiness about reform The Bana Ba Metsi School was established in order to rehabilitate youths at risk.
The school therefore exists to provide therapy to these children.