in marriage circulated in Shakespeare's day, providing rich and . Hortensio and Gremio making plans to hire tutors for Bianca and to to the extreme test. Luckily for Lucentio, Tranio is devoted to serving his master well, rather than abusing him. More worldly-wise than the impressionable young Lucentio, Tranio . Tranio is so much an alter ego of Lucentio that he ends up impersonating him. In some aspects and situations, in fact, Tranio is Lucentio's better self, yet even.
Oliver suggests the play was composed no later than He bases this on the title page of A Shrew, which mentions the play had been performed "sundry times" by Pembroke's Men. When the London theatres were closed on 23 June due to an outbreak of plaguePembroke's Men went on a regional tour to Bath and Ludlow.
The Taming Of The Shrew Test - ProProfs Quiz
The tour was a financial failure, and the company returned to London on 28 September, financially ruined.
Over the course of the next three years, four plays with their name on the title page were published; Christopher Marlowe 's Edward II published in quarto in Julyand Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus published in quarto inThe True Tragedy of Richard Duke of York published in octavo in and The Taming of a Shrew published in quarto in May Oliver says it is a "natural assumption" that these publications were sold by members of Pembroke's Men who were broke after the failed tour.
Oliver assumes that A Shrew is a reported version of The Shrew, which means The Shrew must have been in their possession when they began their tour in June, as they didn't perform it upon returning to London in September, nor would they have taken possession of any new material at that time. She focuses on the closure of the theatres on 23 Junearguing that the play must have been written prior to June for it to have given rise to A Shrew. Secondly, Elam suggests that Shakespeare derived his Italian idioms and some of the dialogue from Florio's Second Fruits, a bilingual introduction to Italian language and culture.
Elam argues that Lucentio's opening dialogue, Tranio, since for the great desire I had To see fair Padua, nursery of arts, I am arrived for fruitful Lombardy, The pleasant garden of great Italy.
Elam's arguments suggest The Shrew must have been written bywhich places the date of composition around — Greg has demonstrated that A Shrew and The Shrew were treated as the same text for the purposes of copyrighti. There are five main theories as to the nature of this relationship: The two plays are unrelated other than the fact that they are both based on another play which is now lost.
This is the Ur-Shrew theory in reference to Ur-Hamlet. A Shrew is an early draft of The Shrew. Oliver suggests, there are "passages in [A Shrew] [ In The Shrew, the Christopher Sly framework is only featured twice; at the opening of the play, and at the end of Act 1, Scene 1. Pope added most of the Sly framework to The Shrew, even though he acknowledged in his preface that he did not believe Shakespeare had written A Shrew.
By comparing seven passages which are similar in both plays, he concluded "the original conception is invariably to be found" in The Shrew. He reached this conclusion primarily because A Shrew features numerous lines almost identical to lines in Marlowe's Tamburlaine and Dr. Instead he labelled A Shrew a bad quarto. His main argument was that, primarily in the subplot of A Shrew, characters act without motivation, whereas such motivation is present in The Shrew. Alexander believed this represents an example of a "reporter" forgetting details and becoming confused, which also explains why lines from other plays are used from time to time; to cover gaps which the reporter knows have been left.
Chamberswho reasserted the source theory. Its textual relation to The Shrew does not bear any analogy to that of other 'bad Quartos' to the legitimate texts from which they were memorised.
The nomenclaturewhich at least a memoriser can recall, is entirely different. The verbal parallels are limited to stray phrases, most frequent in the main plot, for which I believe Shakespeare picked them up from A Shrew. InLeo Kirschbaum made a similar argument. In an article listing over twenty examples of bad quartos, Kirschbaum did not include A Shrew, which he felt was too different from The Shrew to come under the bad quarto banner; "despite protestations to the contrary, The Taming of a Shrew does not stand in relation to The Shrew as The True Tragedie, for example, stands in relation to 3 Henry VI.
Alexander's theory continued to be challenged as the years went on. Houk developed what came to be dubbed the Ur-Shrew theory; both A Shrew and The Shrew were based upon a third play, now lost. Duthie refined Houk's suggestion by arguing A Shrew was a memorial reconstruction of Ur-Shrew, a now lost early draft of The Shrew; "A Shrew is substantially a memorially constructed text and is dependent upon an early Shrew play, now lost.
The Shrew is a reworking of this lost play. Duthie argues this other version was a Shakespearean early draft of The Shrew; A Shrew constitutes a reported text of a now lost early draft. In particular, he concentrated on the various complications and inconsistencies in the subplot of A Shrew, which had been used by Houk and Duthie as evidence for an Ur-Shrew, to argue that the reporter of A Shrew attempted to recreate the complex subplot from The Shrew but got confused; "the compiler of A Shrew while trying to follow the subplot of The Shrew gave it up as too complicated to reproduce, and fell back on love scenes in which he substituted for the maneuvers of the disguised Lucentio and Hortensio extracts from Tamburlaine and Faustus, with which the lovers woo their ladies.
Morris summarised the scholarly position in as one in which no clear-cut answers could be found; "unless new, external evidence comes to light, the relationship between The Shrew and A Shrew can never be decided beyond a peradventure. It will always be a balance of probabilities, shifting as new arguments and opinions are added to the scales.
The Taming of the Shrew
Nevertheless, in the present century, the movement has unquestionably been towards an acceptance of the Bad Quarto theory, and this can now be accepted as at least the current orthodoxy. The Early Quartos series. Miller agrees with most modern scholars that A Shrew is derived from The Shrew, but he does not believe it to be a bad quarto.
Instead, he argues it is an adaptation by someone other than Shakespeare. In The Shrew, after the wedding, Gremio expresses doubts as to whether or not Petruchio will be able to tame Katherina.
As Gremio does have a counterpart in I Suppositi, Miller concludes that "to argue the priority of A Shrew in this case would mean arguing that Shakespeare took the negative hints from the speeches of Polidor and Phylema and gave them to a character he resurrected from Supposes.
This is a less economical argument than to suggest that the compiler of A Shrew, dismissing Gremio, simply shared his doubts among the characters available.
The Taming Of The Shrew Test
For him, adaptation includes exact quotation, imitation and incorporation of his own additions. This seems to define his personal style, and his aim seems to be to produce his own version, presumably intended that it should be tuned more towards the popular era than The Shrew. He points out that the subplot in The Shrew is based on "the classical style of Latin comedy with an intricate plot involving deception, often kept in motion by a comic servant.
He points to the fact that in The Shrew, there is only eleven lines of romance between Lucentio and Bianca, but in A Shrew, there is an entire scene between Kate's two sisters and their lovers. This, he argues, is evidence of an adaptation rather than a faulty report; while it is difficult to know the motivation of the adapter, we can reckon that from his point of view an early staging of The Shrew might have revealed an overly wrought play from a writer trying to establish himself but challenging too far the current ideas of popular comedy.
The Shrew is long and complicated. It has three plots, the subplots being in the swift Latin or Italianate style with several disguises. Its language is at first stuffed with difficult Italian quotations, but its dialogue must often sound plain when compared to Marlowe's thunder or Greene's romance, the mouth-filling lines and images that on other afternoons were drawing crowds.
An adapter might well have seen his role as that of a 'play doctor' improving The Shrew — while cutting it — by stuffing it with the sort of material currently in demand in popular romantic comedies. Oliver argues the version of the play in the First Folio was likely copied not from a prompt book or transcript, but from the author's own foul paperswhich he believes showed signs of revision by Shakespeare.
When Shakespeare rewrote the play so that Hortensio became a suitor in disguise Litiomany of his lines were either omitted or given to Tranio disguised as Lucentio. For example, in Act 2, Scene 1, Tranio as Lucentio and Gremio bid for Bianca, but Hortensio, who everyone is aware is also a suitor, is never mentioned. In Act 3, Scene 2, Tranio suddenly becomes an old friend of Petruchio, knowing his mannerisms and explaining his tardiness prior to the wedding.
However, up to this point, Petruchio's only acquaintance in Padua has been Hortensio. However, as far as Hortensio should be concerned, Lucentio has denounced Bianca, because in Act 4, Scene 2, Tranio disguised as Lucentio agreed with Hortensio that neither of them would pursue Bianca, and as such, his knowledge of the marriage of who he supposes to be Lucentio and Bianca makes no sense. From this, Oliver concludes that an original version of the play existed in which Hortensio was simply a friend of Petruchio's, and had no involvement in the Bianca subplot, but wishing to complicate things, Shakespeare rewrote the play, introducing the Litio disguise, and giving some of Hortensio's discarded lines to Tranio, but not fully correcting everything to fit the presence of a new suitor.
Upon returning to London, they published A Shrew insome time after which Shakespeare rewrote his original play into the form seen in the First Folio. Controversy[ edit ] Kevin Black in his "wedding outfit" in the Carmel Shakespeare Festival production. The Taming of the Shrew has been the subject of critical controversy. Dana Aspinall writes "Since its first appearance, some time between andShrew has elicited a panoply of heartily supportive, ethically uneasy, or altogether disgusted responses to its rough-and-tumble treatment of the 'taming' of the 'curst shrew' Katherina, and obviously, of all potentially unruly wives.
Do we simply add our voices to those of critical disapproval, seeing Shrew as at best an 'early Shakespeare', the socially provocative effort of a dramatist who was learning to flex his muscles? Or as an item of social archaeology that we have long ago abandoned? Or do we 'rescue' it from offensive male smugness? Or make an appeal to the slippery category of ' irony '?
Hibbard argues that during the period in which the play was written, arranged marriages were beginning to give way to newer, more romantically informed unions, and thus people's views on women's position in society, and their relationships with men, were in a state of flux. As such, audiences may not have been as predisposed to tolerate the harsh treatment of Katherina as is often thought.
In a mirror of the original, his new wife attempts successfully to tame him — thus the tamer becomes the tamed. Although Fletcher's sequel is often downplayed as merely a farce, some critics acknowledge the more serious implications of such a reaction. Lynda Boose, for example, writes, "Fletcher's response may in itself reflect the kind of discomfort that Shrew has characteristically provoked in men and why its many revisions since have repeatedly contrived ways of softening the edges.
For some critics, "Kate's taming was no longer as funny as it had been [ Marcus very much believes the play to be what it seems. She argues A Shrew is an earlier version of The Shrew, but acknowledges that most scholars reject the idea that A Shrew was written by Shakespeare. She believes one of the reasons for this is because A Shrew "hedges the play's patriarchal message with numerous qualifiers that do not exist in" The Shrew.
For example, director Conall Morrisonwrote in I find it gobsmacking that some people see the play as misogynistic. I believe that it is a moral tale. I believe that it is saying — "do not be like this" and "do not do this. It's amazing how you lobotomised her. And they're betting on the women as though they are dogs in a race or horses. It's reduced to that. And it's all about money and the level of power.
Have you managed to crush Katharina or for Hortensio and Lucentio, will you be able to control Bianca and the widow? Will you similarly be able to control your proto-shrews? It is so self-evidently repellent that I don't believe for a second that Shakespeare is espousing this.
And I don't believe for a second that the man who would be interested in Benedict and Cleopatra and Romeo and Juliet and all these strong lovers would have some misogynist aberration. Petruchio, undaunted by the horrific tales of Kate, assures the men she will be easily won. As the scene ends, Tranio disguised as Lucentio appears with Biondello as they, too, head to Minola's house. Tranio informs Gremio and Hortensio that he, too, shall be considered as a suitor for Bianca.
Analysis Shakespeare, after carefully setting up his story through the Induction and the opening scene, finally allows us to have more than a momentary look at one of the story's protagonists — however, it isn't Katherine Minola we see. Instead, Shakespeare shifts his focus away from the woman who will be at the heart of the comedy and directs our attention to Petruchio, a Veronese man who has come to Padua on a mission: Unlike Katherine, whom we learn about largely through the questionably biased perspectives of other characters she speaks only thirteen lines in all of Act I — hardly enough for us to determine whether she really is a shrew or notPetruchio appears and through his own account, we learn more about his motivation.
The initial encounter with Petruchio reveals a young man of some means who is traveling through Padua with his servant, as if on a quest. Indeed, he does seek an elusive prize — fortune. His witty banter reveals a quick mind and an even quicker tongue although his servant Grumio does a fine job of keeping up with his masterboth traits he'll need if he is to go against Baptista's shrewish daughter.
Petruchio is not a tolerant man, though he is by no means an ogre. His quibble with Grumio rapidly escalates to physical confrontation, demonstrating he is not a man afraid to use force to get his point across. Petruchio is used to holding a dominant position, and his treatment of Gremio serves as a warning of that which he is capable.
The Taming of the Shrew - Wikipedia
Upon meeting Hortensio, an old friend, Petruchio recounts his situation and what brings him to Padua. His status, we find, is not terribly unlike other sons. After his father's death, he has come into his inheritance.
Just prior he has noted his overarching goal is "Happily to wive and thrive as best I may" Some critics theorize that although Petruchio has come into his inheritance, it is not of considerable quantity, and therefore he needs the financial resources of a wealthy wife in order to secure his position as one of the up and coming gentry.
Hortensio seems to be aware of his friend's precarious status because he immediately, albeit half-comically, offers to fix him up with someone who is assuredly rich, although she is also hard to handle and most likely not worth even the largest fortune.
Petruchio's ears immediately perk up at Hortensio's offer, and he shows us just how ready he is to marry for money. Although Petruchio's motives may seem a bit mercenary to us today when we espouse marrying for love, at the time in which the play was written, marriage for reasons other than love was not at all unusual. Political alliances and family fortunes were often at the heart of marriages, especially in the upper classes from which people like Petruchio and Kate come.
Petruchio is clearly interested in solidifying his net worth, and how better to do it than through marriage? Kate, the elder daughter of a wealthy man who has no sons nor any promise of ever having any is a prime catch. She brings a generous dowry and stands to inherit half her father's worth upon his death.
Her personality has kept suitors from capitalizing on her economic potential, but we must wonder, given what mercenary tactics may underlay marriage, perhaps Kate's behavior is merely a defense against men seeking her fortune rather than her company an issue which is explored further in Act II. Shakespeare has set up two distinctly volatile personalities in Petruchio and Katherine.
Although what we know of Kate so far comes largely through what other's say of her, we know her well enough to know that if their accounts are even partially correct, the action will explode when she meets Petruchio. Just as the theme of marriage, its purposes and forms, expands in this scene, so too does the number of disguises. Hortensio, rejected as a suitor to Bianca, is determined to work his way into Baptista Minola's house.