The Second Great Awakening - influence of the Market Revolution (video) | Khan Academy
Relationships Alexie reveals that relationships will always bind two After Arnold breaks the news to his best friend Rowdy, that he transferring. Modern rock KCXX Riverside, Calif, operations manager Dwight Arnold From the beginning of its relationship with the band, MCA has relied on Zach Fishnell, one of the five individuals on the Sublime Marketing staff, says the . 19 - 1 LIKE 1 DO FOR REAL (ROWDY/ARISTA) 20 15 4 WHY 3T (FEATURING MICHAEL. My house is a safe place, so Rowdy spends most of his time with us. It's like he's a family "Uh, actually," Gordy said, "Arnold is right about petrified wood. That's what which he of course shrugged off as marketing pap. The next day, he.
He is one of the smartest students at the school and he eventually becomes Junior's first real friend at Reardan. Gordy also helps Junior with schoolwork and encourages his enjoyment of reading books. Penelope Junior's crush and good friend from Reardan High. She has blonde hair and Junior thinks that she is very attractive. She enjoys helping others, is bulimicand has a racist father named Earl. She is popular and plays on the Reardan volleyball team. She is obsessed with leaving the small town behind and traveling the world.
Eugene The best friend of Junior's father. Eugene dies after his close friend Bobby shoots him in the face during a dispute over alcohol. Bobby hangs himself in jail. Grandmother Spirit Junior's Grandma. She is Junior's source of advice and support, until she dies after being hit by a drunk driver while walking on the side of the road on her way home after a powwow. Her dying words were "Forgive him," which meant that she wanted her family to forgive the drunk driver, Gerald, for hitting and killing her.
Ironically, she never had a drink in her life. She was also extremely tolerant and loving of all people. Junior's grandma is his favorite person in the world.
Unlike the teachers who are apprehensive of Junior's attendance at Reardan, the coach pays no attention to Junior's race. He is supportive of Junior both on and off the court.
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Themes and Symbolism[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.The Absolutely True Diary of a Part Time Indian Trailer (2013)
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message Hope and dreams[ edit ] Throughout the novel, Junior shares his dreams with the readers. In the first chapter, he dreams of becoming a cartoon artist in order to get rich and escape the cycles of poverty and abuse on the reservation.
The idea that hope exists off the rez is echoed in later chapters, where Junior finds himself caught between home on the reservation and pursuing his dreams in the outside world. Junior asks his parents, "Who has the most hope? Hence, the novel explores the theme of hope and dreams through Junior's struggles to find a path to break free of his seemingly doomed fate on the reservation.
He reveals this information in a way that is both comical and sympathetic; he invites readers to share and relate to his experience being bullied. Violence[ edit ] Junior lives under the constant threat of physical violence. Although he attempts to assuage the threat through his drawings and light-hearted approach to the problem, he is nevertheless subjected to regular beatings by members of the reservation, including the adults.
Violence serves as a form of communication in the reservation; Junior believes it is the Native Americans' acknowledgement that they are going nowhere that fuels their violence. Thus, as is true with Rowdy, physical violence is also communicative. Poverty[ edit ] Poverty is a theme that is introduced by the main character at the very beginning on the book.
Junior knows that his family is poor, just as every other family who lives on the reservation. Junior and his family often go without meals for extended periods of time, and therefore savor the meals that they do get.
The death of Oscar, the canine best friend of Junior, is shot by his father because their family can't afford to pay the veterinarian bills. The poverty disparity is also evident when Junior transfers schools to Reardan and notices the difference in quality of clothing between him and his rich, white peers. He even, on occasion, walks to and from school because his family doesn't have the gas or transportation to get him there and home.
Ashamed of economic status, Junior does everything in his power to ensure that none of his peers find out that his family is poor, such as making excuses, lying, and borrowing money. Race[ edit ] The novel uses humorous narratives and comics to convey the theme of race.
It explores racial issues such as stereotyping of Native and White people, the use of indigenous culture as sports mascots, interracial friendships, and cultural tokenization.
For example, Junior notes that the only other "Indian" at Reardan was its school mascot, calling attention to the ubiquitous use of indigenous symbols in sports see " List of sports team names and mascots derived from indigenous peoples ".
Although Junior often dichotomizes Whites and Indians, Alexie reveals the stereotyping that occurs while still blurring the lines between races.
Junior eventually establishes friendship with many of the White Reardan students, who see past race and accept him for his caring nature, his intelligence, and his basketball talents. Alcohol abuse[ edit ] Alcohol abuse is an issue salient to the Spokane reservation. Junior voices his disapproval for its widespread use and considers it to be directly responsible for much of the disarray in his own family. The portrayal of alcoholism in the novel is representative of the problem Native Americans have with the use of alcohol.
Much of Alexie's desire to explore and address the issue of alcoholism derives from his own experiences with alcohol on the reservation. When asked if he feels the need to address alcoholism as a Native American, he replied "the whole race is filled with alcoholics.
For those Indians who try to pretend it's a stereotype, they're in deep, deep denial," and by addressing it that "with the social hope that by writing about it, maybe it'll help people get sober, and it has. In the first chapter, Junior says, "Rowdy might be the most important person in my life.
Maybe more important than my family. But as the novel progresses, Junior begins to make friends at Reardan High and learns just how crucial it is to build new relationships with different people, as they each serve an important role or function in his life. Rowdy reads comics as a way to escape from his abusive, dysfunctional home: In contrast, Junior draws cartoons and writes because it makes him feel important and is his way of communicating with the world.
Alexie furthers the distinction between Junior on Mary on page 46—he writes, "My sister is running away to get lost, but I am running away because I want to find something.
- The Second Great Awakening - influence of the Market Revolution
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In essence, writing, drawing, and reading are activities that are cathartic to Rowdy, Mary, and Junior. These outlets function as coping mechanisms to make the dysfunction, violence, and abuse in the characters' lives more bearable. Oscar[ edit ] Oscar is Junior's stray mutt, best friend, and "the only living thing he can depend on.
Oscar is a symbol of the struggles and consequences of being poor. Junior's inability to aid his friend reminds him of the poverty he believes he is destined to inherit. Basketball[ edit ] In the novel, basketball is a symbol of improvement. Before his arrival to Reardan, Junior was, by his own words, "a decent player.
By the end of the novel, Junior believes he will be able to beat Rowdy someday. The transformation Junior undergoes through the sport is a testament of his will-power and dedication to better himself.
Family[ edit ] Family takes significance part in this book. Even Junior's family are poor, they always supported him and he mentioned that they are the only people who listen to him.
His sister sends letters and gives him hope. His dad, who is alcoholic, saved five dollars for him. Junior knows that it is easy for his father to spend that five dollars on alcohol but the fact that he saved it for him made him feel special. This shows that money is not everything to become happy. Reviews[ edit ] Bruce Barcott of The New York Times said in a review, "For 15 years now, Sherman Alexie has explored the struggle to survive between the grinding plates of the Indian and white worlds.
Working in the voice of a year-old forces Alexie to strip everything down to action and emotion, so that reading becomes more like listening to your smart, funny best friend recount his day while waiting after school for a ride home.
Delia Santos, a publisher for the civilrights. The Real Struggles of a Native American Boy make an Uplifting Story" published in The Guardianauthor Diane Samuels says that Alexie's book has a "combination of drawings, pithy turns of phrase, candor, tragedy, despair and hope … [that] makes this more than an entertaining read, more than an engaging story about a North American Indian kid who makes it out of a poor, dead-end background without losing his connection with who he is and where he's from.
It's humane, authentic and, most of all, it speaks. Furthermore, Talbert believes that, unlike other Young Adult novels, this book captures issues of race and class in a way that reaches a wider audience.
Crandall points out that Arnold is never held back by his disability, but in fact laughs at himself: His disability fades as a plot device as the book progresses. Basketball in the Work of Sherman Alexie", analyses the importance of basketball in the novel. You see this a lot in this time period. The United States also starts to urbanize and there's lots of writing about how people worry that the people that they're passing on the street might be con men or otherwise out to get them.
You know, in many ways, up until this time, the United States had something of a barter economy. If you look at people's personal ledgers, you know, everybody kept a very detailed log of what they had given to whom and who they owed what. In an average day, somebody might give you a carton of eggs on credit and you might build a log cabin for somebody on credit because there was this mutual community system of giving and owing that everyone had a notion could be enforced, at least through social mores.
Now, as people begin dealing distantly, those social mores don't exist and it makes people really nervous. The other aspect of this Market Revolution that I think is pretty important is, in this time period, more and more people start working for wages as opposed to being subsistence farmers. So, you know, in the early Colonial period, most people worked, it's kind of a family unit.
Various tasks might be assigned to various family members, but one way or another, everybody worked in the home. Now, as factories start to spring up as part of the Market Revolution, people are going to work for wages and typically involves a man leaving the home and the woman remaining in it.
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So we get what was known as the cult of domesticity, where women are the guardians of the home and the moral guardians of their families and men go out into the cruel world and toil away for their daily bread. So why does that matter?
Well, one reason that it matters is because people are now no longer their own bosses. Somebody else is the boss of that person. And they only have so much motivation to get something done, right? If your whole family's subsistence depends on you making sure that you get this crop in on time, you're gonna make sure it happens. But if you're just being paid by the hour to run a spindle at a textile factory, how much money your boss makes off your labor isn't really your concern.
And so there's a lot of anxiety around making what had been basically a farming nation into an industrial nation. How does one behave as a worker in a factory and how does one, as a factory owner, make sure that you have a sober, intelligent, hard-working, but not too rowdy workforce? So both of these innovations, the relationship between buyers and sellers in distant markets, and the relationship between factory owners and factory workers create anxiety about how you're going to know people are good, how you're going to know that people are holding up their end in society.
And one way to promote that is through religion, which tells you not to be a sinner, which tells you to do a good job, which tells you to be a productive member of society and work for the common good, and promote your moral compass. Now, that's just one explanation for why the Second Great Awakening took off in this time period. And you can tell, it's kind of a grim one, right, in terms of promoting religion basically to keep people in line.
But that's not the only possible explanation for why the Second Great Awakening may have happened. There are also a bunch of social changes in this time period that could be serious contributors to this explosion of religion.
Now, one of these was just westward expansion in general. So as the United States moved west, the rate of western expansion, really, actually increased in this time period. So aboutthe center of American population was about here, right? So let's think about both north and south, east and west, where people lived. If you kind of totaled them all up and put a dot right in the middle of where everybody lived, it would just be right here kind of on the Eastern Seaboard, as everyone's pretty close to the coast.
Bythe center of population was way over here. So just think, if this is all the people who had to live there to be on either side of that line, think of how many people have to be on either side of this line for the population to have its center right there.
So people have really spread out in this time period. Where before, there was kind of this east coast elite where all the money was, now the Market Revolution has meant that people who live along these byways, live along rivers and canals and railroads, those towns are gonna start having people in them with some money. And so the middle class expands and the amount of people who have the vote expands. So it's really a time of expanding democracy in general, both in terms of wealth and in terms of political power.
And so you can see why a religion like that promoted in the Second Great Awakening, the Baptists, the Methodists, that said anyone can have a relationship with God, would become more popular as more and more people started to kind of take their own fates in their own hands, right? This is the time of the rugged individual, a very popular idea that one, you know, pulled oneself by the bootstraps and that's the pioneering spirit.
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So very characteristic American values that went into making a type of religion with more individuality, with more possibilities for more people much more popular in this time period. And there's one case of this that I think is really interesting and it's in western New York. So in western New York, there's the town of Rochester.