What causes flow? The answer, not surprisingly, is pressure difference. In fact, there is a very simple relationship between horizontal flow and pressure. To understand the relationship between the pressure drop across a . diameter, fluid viscosity, density, and velocity by first calculating the. Hello all, I am currently designing a hydraulic system. We have very little margin for pressure drop and we just can't afford to find out the.
Between two points, the Bernoulli Equation can be expressed as: In other words, the upstream location can be at a lower or higher elevation than the downstream location.
If the fluid is flowing up to a higher elevation, this energy conversion will act to decrease the static pressure. If the fluid flows down to a lower elevation, the change in elevation head will act to increase the static pressure. Conversely, if the fluid is flowing down hill from an elevation of 75 ft to 25 ft, the result would be negative and there will be a Pressure Change due to Velocity Change Fluid velocity will change if the internal flow area changes.
For example, if the pipe size is reduced, the velocity will increase and act to decrease the static pressure. If the flow area increases through an expansion or diffuser, the velocity will decrease and result in an increase in the static pressure. If the pipe diameter is constant, the velocity will be constant and there will be no change in pressure due to a change in velocity.Physics - Fluid Dynamics (3 of 25) Viscosity & Fluid Flow: Reynolds Number (Re)
As an example, if an expansion fitting increases a 4 inch schedule 40 pipe to a 6 inch schedule 40 pipe, the inside diameter increases from 4. If the flow rate through the expansion is gpm, the velocity goes from 9. The change in static pressure across the expansion due to the change in velocity is: Should I write more?
A newtonian fluid is one in which the viscosity is just a number.
- Pressure drop
A non-newtonian fluid is one in which the viscosity is a function of some mechanical variable like shear stress or time. Non-newtonian fluids that change over time are said to have a memory.
Pressure drop - Wikipedia
Some gels and pastes behave like a fluid when worked or agitated and then settle into a nearly solid state when at rest. Such materials are examples of shear-thinning fluids.
House paint is a shear-thinning fluid and it's a good thing, too.
Brushing, rolling, or spraying are means of temporarily applying shear stress. This reduces the paint's viscosity to the point where it can now flow out of the applicator and onto the wall or ceiling.
Once this shear stress is removed the paint returns to its resting viscosity, which is so large that an appropriately thin layer behaves more like a solid than a liquid and the paint does not run or drip. Think about what it would be like to paint with water or honey for comparison. The former is always too runny and the latter is always too sticky.
Toothpaste is another example of a material whose viscosity decreases under stress. Toothpaste behaves like a solid while it sits at rest inside the tube. It will not flow out spontaneously when the cap is removed, but it will flow out when you put the squeeze on it. Now it ceases to behave like a solid and starts to act like a thick liquid. You don't have to worry about it flowing off the brush as you raise it to your mouth.
Viscosity – The Physics Hypertextbook
Shear-thinning fluids can be classified into one of three general groups. A material that has a viscosity that decreases under shear stress but stays constant over time is said to be pseudoplastic. A material that has a viscosity that decreases under shear stress and then continues to decrease with time is said to be thixotropic.