Pakistan and Afghanistan after 9/ A Case of the Failing Bilateralismâ | OMICS International
The state of the recently contentious relationship between Pakistan and for Afghanistan can turn the tide of the year conflict, Pakistan's top. Why Is China Holding the China-Pakistan-Afghanistan Dialogue Now? Beijing aims to incorporate Pakistan and Afghanistan deeper into its sphere of influence. The Afghan Taliban have grown stronger and more deadly over the past 13 years , something Pakistan is often blamed for by Afghans and.
Methodology and Objective of the Major Question Afghanistan has been regarded as corner point for the policy makers in Pakistan.
But goals of the policy are almost unattained due to certain factors. This study presents an overview of this uneasy march of diplomacy between the two neighbors. The methodology is descriptive analytical and also historical. An Overview of the Issue After the overthrow Taliban the government of Pakistan welcomed the installation of interim government and assured of her cooperation in the reconstruction of Afghanistan and rehabilitation of its people.
Due to its strategic importance in the world, and a gateway to the energy rich Central Asian Republics it became easier for the world powers to exploit the country in the name of war on terror. In February the Afghan president Hamid Karzi paid a special visit to Islamabad to discuss matters of interests. The government of Pakistan reaffirmed her commitment to provide full assistance to the new Afghan government in every sphere [ 2 ]. The same year Pakistan hosted a multi donor conference in Islamabad to raise a fund for the reconstruction of Afghanistan.
Pakistan also provided her support during presidential elections in and parliamentary election She sealed her borders to control terrorist flow towards Afghanistan.
Pakistan never wanted to destabilize Afghanistan but due to Indian involvement, Pakistan has always been alleged for the disturbed state of affairs. Talking to media on June 22, Hamid Kerzi made allegations that Pakistan was harbouring and giving aid to Taliban fighting inside Afghanistan. So, it was necessary for the international community to cut off the source and roots to defeat terrorism.
This statement deteriorated the situation further. Pakistan gave full support to Kerzi during presidential election campaign in Pakistan. The interior minister of Pakistan Mr. Sherpao said to Kerzi during a meeting in Kabul in March that Pakistan wanted to fence the boarder and plant mines to stop the terrorist infiltration but Kerzi did not agree. Due to km long border with Afghanistan it is very difficult for Pakistan to seal every corner of it. Pakistan had maintained almost 80, troops on her western border.
She does not want instability in Afghanistan and always voiced for a stable and prosperous Afghanistan. The relations between the two neighboring and brotherly Muslim countries experienced great shifts during the Era. Attending a press conference he said: In the past we had suffered alone; this time everybody will suffer with us. Any effort to divide Afghanistan ethnically or weaken it will create the same thing in the neighboring countries.
All the countries in the neighborhood have the same ethnic groups that we have, so they should know that it is a different ball game this time [ 3 ]. Pakistan Afghanistan skirmishes continued throughout the year during which many times Afghan forces had opened fire and violated the border. She is the major investor in Afghanistan. Since the overthrow of Taliban she is continuously engaged in destabilizing Pakistan through their agent across the border. For this purpose India had built about five hundred points near Pakistan border to mobilize terrorists into Pakistan.
They are given training, funding and weapons and then penetrated into Pakistan. She provides funding and weapons and also training to the organization to create terror and instability in Pakistan. India through activities of the kind is trying to defame Pakistan and label her a failing and terrorist state.
Another goal of this policy is to isolate Pakistan in her neighbors and internationally.
It’s Complicated: The Relationship Between Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the Taliban – Foreign Policy
Afghan government looks more inclined towards India than Pakistan. There are solid proofs that India provided weapons and economically supported the Wazir and Bloch insurgents. Both the countries put allegations on each other but did not give a sincere hearing to one another stance that is why the foreigner conspirators are making ground and using it for personal gains. India has launched proxy war against Pakistan in Afghanistan. She regards herself the bargainer of affairs in south Asia and wants to keep her political and economic influence in Afghanistan and keep Pakistan out.
Due to Indian factor the ties between the two neighbours are not very cordial. Mediation and Bilateral Moves Efforts were made by the brotherly Muslim country Turkey and USA to bring both countries to negotiating table and reduce their tensions. Several Ministerial level and Head of State level meetings were organized by US and Turkey in which efforts were made to ease the tensions between the two. Kerzi and Musharraf met at Loya Jerga in Kabul in Augustboth the leaders agreed to make a working group and build confidence between the two neighbors [ 4 ].
The new government expressed strong desire to maintain friendly and cordial relation with Afghanistan. After Musharraf left his presidential seat Mr. Asif Ali Zardari became the new president. Kerzi did not miss the occasion, during their meeting both the leaders made their pledges to help each other in countering terrorism.
President Zardari visited Kabul in Januarydiscussed the bilateral issues and signed an agreement aimed at countering terrorism. In September Foreign Ministers level meeting was held between the two countries during which pledges were renewed for countering terrorism [ 5 ].
In agriculture sector, creation of a Pakistan-Afghanistan Food Bank was proposed. While in the energy sector joint strategies for early implementation of trans-Afghan energy projects were agreed with particular focus on CASA and Turkmenistan-Afghanistan- Pakistan gas pipeline.
Pakistan permitted the use of Gowader and port Qasim for Afghan transit trade, and eighteen roads inside Pakistan to India. Pakistan also announced aid package for Afghanistan to rebuild rail track, roads, schools, universities and hospitals [ 6 ]. Its role was to reconcile with Taliban. The HPC was assigned the tasks ; meeting the Taliban and other insurgent groups and bringing them to the talking table.
In his message the president of afhganistan said: We take serious the issue of durable peace in our country. Peace is an essential element of political stability.
A country that is entangled with insecurity and where its people have no safety and security, cannot achieve stability — Hamid Karzi The main aim behind all this was to decide the future for Afghanistan. In SeptemberRabbani was assassinated in Kabul in a suicide attack.
The Afghan president put the allegations on Pakistan without any solid proof.
So the relations deteriorated once again. Pakistan denounced her envolement by condemning the attack and assured Afghan authorities of her cooperation [ 7 ].
Kerzi signed a strategic and trade agreement with India to promote cooperation. It also provided India to use the Afghan soil for conspiracies against Pakistan. India never wanted to lose any such opportunity which can have negative impacts on Pakistan. Pakistan has great influence inside Afghanistan. Specially in the Pashtun belt and also in the warlords of Afghanistan. In the border areas, the Pakistanis and the Afghanis have fraternal and maternal relations.
Also, they have intermarried and interwined such as no one can separate them. The Pakistani populace along with her govenment have great sympathies with the Afghan government and her people. The role of Diplomacy Understanding this relationship a delegation of the non Pashtun leaders including the former foreign Minister Abdullah Abdullah, Ahmad Zia Masood, Uzbek warlord Rashid Dostum came to Islamabad where they met the Pakistani leadership to find ways for bilateral cooperation.
Pakistan renewed her pledge to help in the stability and prosperity of Afghanistan. Pakistan assured having no sympathy with the insurgent elements inside Afghanistan. The British premier Mr. David Cameron visited Kabul in July The two leaders agreed to make a joint commission to investigate about the borders issues.
In the annual meeting of UN both the leaders met in New York and discussed bilateral issues. Kerzi also expressed his interest in making a strategic pact with Pakistan to reduce tension and revise the reconciliation process in Afghanistan. For the last several years the joint HPC have met more than 20 times and discussed different issues.
In December the Afghan foreign Minister Zalmai Rassoul visited Islamabad, met his Pakistani counterpart and discussed road map On the eve Pakistan released 15 more Taliban leaders as a gesture of goodwill. Inthe Afghan intelligence head of services Hassamuddin Hassam came to Islamabad to discuss the issues of common interest. He expressed his desire to get the Afghan military officers trained in Pakistan Military Academy.
The participants agreed to take necessary measures to secure a peace deal with Taliban within six months and also given permission to Taliban to open an office in Qatar for the peace talk with HCP. In this meeting Pakistan stressed the Afghan president to roll back the strategic pact with India but he did not agree to it. Arising Borders Skirmishes Consequently, the relations once again became fragile. Another setback came when the Afghan border military forces opened fire on Pakistani forces in early May In reaction, Pakistani forces paid in the same coin.
During these clashes policemen were killed on both sides. The accident happened just few days before the general elections in Pakistan. These developments were not welcomed in Pakistan. After taking the oath, Kerzi was the first president to call Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and congratulate him on his Primiership. He also expressed his hope for betterment in relations and that both the countries would help each other in the war against terrorism.
For this purpose foreign policy advisor Mr. Sartaj Aziz visited to Kabul to discuss bilateral issues. During his visit both the leaders discussed different issues and projects of bilateral interest. Pakistan reassured that a happy and prosperous Afghanistan was in the best interest of Pakistan. Secondly, it politically and financially backed secessionist politicians in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in the s.
Afghanistan's policies placed a severe strain upon Pakistan—Afghan relations in the s, up until the s, when the movement[ which? The Pashtun assimilation into the Pakistani state followed years of rising Pashtun influence in Pakistani politics and the nation's bureaucracy, culminating in Ayub KhanYahya KhanIshaq Khan — all Pashtuns, attaining leadership of Pakistan. The largest nationalist party of the time, the Awami National Party ANPdropped its secessionist agenda and embraced the Pakistani state, leaving only a small Pakhtunkhwa Millat Party to champion the cause of independence in relation to both Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Despite the weaknesses of the early secessionist movement, this period in history continues to negatively influence Pakistani-Afghan relations in the 21st century, in addition to the province's politics. War in Afghanistan —presentAfghans in Pakistanand Afghanistan—Pakistan skirmishes George Crile III and Charlie Wilson Texas politician with an unnamed political personality in the background person wearing the aviator glasses looking at the photo camera.
They were the main players in Operation Cyclonethe code name for the United States Central Intelligence Agency program to arm and finance the multi-national mujahideen during the Soviet—Afghan Warto Relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan began deteriorating in the s after Pakistan supported rebels such as Gulbuddin HekmatyarAhmad Shah Massoud Haqqanisand others against the governments of Afghanistan.
After the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in Decemberthe United States joined Pakistan to counter Soviet influence and advance its own interests in the region. In turn, AfghanIndian and Soviet intelligence agencies played their role by supporting al-Zulfikar — a Pakistani leftist terrorist group responsible for the March hijacking of a Pakistan International Airlines PIA plane.
Its goal was to overthrow the military regime that ousted Bhutto. Pakistan became a major training ground for roughlyforeign mujahideen fighters who began crossing into Afghanistan on a daily basis to wage war against the communist Afghanistan and the Soviet forces.
The mujahideen included not only locals but also Arabs and others from over 40 different Islamic nations.
Many of these foreign fighters married local women and decided to stay in Pakistan, among them were radical Muslims such those of Saudi-led Al-Qaeda and Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood as well as prisoners from Arab countries.
There were no regular schools provided for the refugees but only madrasas in which students were trained to become members of the Taliban movement. The Taliban claimed that they wanted to clean Afghanistan from the warlords and criminals. According to Pakistan and Afghanistan expert Ahmed Rashid"between andan estimated 80, toPakistanis trained and fought in Afghanistan" keeping the Taliban regime in power.
However, the relations began to decline when the Taliban refused to endorse the Durand Line despite pressure from Islamabad, arguing that there shall be no borders among Muslims. InAfghan President Hamid Karzai warned that " Iran and Pakistan and others are not fooling anyone" when it comes to interfering in his country. In the past we have suffered alone; this time everybody will suffer with us. All the countries in the neighborhood have the same ethnic groups that we have, so they should know that it is a different ball game this time.
Relations have become more strained after the Afghan government began openly accusing Pakistan of using its ISI spy network in aiding the Taliban and other militants. Pakistan usually denies these allegations but has said in the past that it does not have full control of the actions of the ISI. There have been a number of reports about the Afghanistan—Pakistan skirmisheswhich usually occur when army soldiers are in hot pursuit chasing insurgents who cross the border back and forth. This leads to tensions between the two states, especially after hearing reports of civilian casualties.