Origin of language - Wikipedia
English languageMap showing the use of the English language as a Icelandic, which has changed little over the last thousand years, is the living language most nearly .. These relations diverge widely in, for example, the words cloverleaf. Table presents names for the numbers 1 to 10 in the Paiwan language of . immediate recognition of the relationship of Malagasy to Malay soon after the first .. of Atayal) exhibits idiosyncratic changes owing to a historical form of “speech . A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship.
After the Moorish invasion beginning inArabic became the administrative and common language in the conquered regions, but most of the remaining Christian population continued to speak a form of Romance commonly known as Mozarabicwhich lasted three centuries longer in Spain.
Portuguese evolved from the medieval language, known today by linguists as Galician-PortugueseOld Portuguese or Old Galician, of the northwestern medieval Kingdom of Galicia and County of Portugal. It is in Latin administrative documents of the 9th century that written Galician-Portuguese words and phrases are first recorded.
In the first part of the Galician-Portuguese period from the 12th to the 14th centurythe language was increasingly used for documents and other written forms.
For some time, it was the language of preference for lyric poetry in Christian Hispaniamuch as Occitan was the language of the poetry of the troubadours in France.
The Occitan digraphs lh and nh, used in its classical orthography, were adopted by the orthography of Portuguesepresumably by Gerald of Braga a monk from Moissacwho became bishop of Braga in Portugal inplaying a major role in modernizing written Portuguese using classical Occitan norms.
Portugal became an independent kingdom inunder King Afonso I of Portugal. InKing Denis of Portugal created the first Portuguese university in Lisbon the Estudos Gerais, which later moved to Coimbra and decreed for Portuguese, then simply called the "common language", to be known as the Portuguese language and used officially.
In the second period of Old Portuguese, in the 15th and 16th centuries, with the Portuguese discoveriesthe language was taken to many regions of Africa, Asia, and the Americas. By the midth century, Portuguese had become a lingua franca in Asia and Africa, used not only for colonial administration and trade but also for communication between local officials and Europeans of all nationalities.
The language continued to be popular in parts of Asia until the 19th century. Through repetition, particular cases may become conventionalized, and therefore produced even in slower or more careful speech. Word meaning change in a similar way, through conventionalization of processes like metaphor and metonymy.G. Yule: The Study of Language - Chapter 17 "Language History and Change"
Some linguists distinguish between internal and external sources of language change, with "internal" sources of change being those that occur within a single languistic community, and contact phenomena being the main examples of an external source of change.
The analogy with evolution via natural selection Darwin himself, in developing the concept of evolution of species via natural selection, made an analogy to the evolution of languages.
- Turkish language
- English language
- Portuguese language
For the analogy to hold, we need a pool of individuals with variable traits, a process of replication creating new individuals whose traits depend on those of their "parents", and a set of environmental processes that result in differential success in replication for different traits. We can cast each of the just-listed types of language change in such a framework. For example, in child language acquisition, different grammatical or different lexical patterns may be more or less easily learnable, resulting in better replication for grammatical or lexical variants that are "fitter" in this sense.
For one thing, linguistic traits can be acquired throughout one's life from many different sources, although intitial acquisition and to a lesser extent adolescence seem to be crucial stages.
Acquired linguistic traits can also be passed on to others. One consequence is that linguistic history need not have the form of a tree, with languages splitting but never rejoining, whereas genetic evolution is largely constrained to have a tree-like form despite the possibility of transfer of genetic material across species boundaries by viral infection and so on.
Language family - Wikipedia
However, as a practical matter, the assumption that linguistic history is a sort of tree structure has been found to be a good working approximation. In particular, the basic sound structure and morphology of languages usually seems to "descend" via a tree-structured graph of inheritance, with regular, lawful relationships between the patterns of "parent" and "child" languages.
Types of Change Sound change All aspects of language change, and a great deal is know about general mechanisms and historical details of changes at all levels of linguistic analysis. However, a special and conspicuous success has been achieved in modeling changes in phonological systems, traditionally called sound change.
In the cases where we have access to several historical stages -- for instance, the development of the modern Romance Languages from Latin -- these sound changes are remarkably regular. Techniques developed in such cases permit us to reconstruct the sound system -- and some of the vocabulary -- of unattested parent languages from information about daughter languages.
In some cases, an old sound becomes a new sound across the board. Such a change occurred in Hawai'ian, in that all the "t" sounds in an older form of the language became "k"s: At that time, there was a length distinction in the English vowels, and the Great Vowel Shift altered the position of all the long vowels, in a giant rotation. In the following chart, the words are located where their vowel used to be pronounced -- where they are pronounced today is indicated by the arrows.
In other cases, a sound change may be "conditioned" so as to apply in certain kinds of environments and not in others. For example, it's very common for tongue-tip "coronal" consonants to become palatal when they are followed by high front vowels.
Processes of sound change. Another dimension along which we can look at sound change is by classifying changes according to the particular process involved. Assimilation, or the influence of one sound on an adjacent sound, is perhaps the most pervasive process.
Palatalization is a kind of assimilation.
Origin of language
In contrast to assimilation, dissimilation, metathesis, and haplology tend to occur more sporadically, i. Dissimilation involves a change in one of two 'same' sounds that are adjacent or almost adjacent in a particular word such that they are no longer the same. Thus the first "l" in English colonel is changed to an "r", and the word is pronounced like "kernel". Metathesis involves the change in order of two adjacent sounds.
Already by the time of Old English, there were two forms of the word for "ask": We don't know which form was metathesized from the other, but we do know that ascian won out in the standard language. Haplology is similar to dissimilation, because it involves getting rid of similar neighboring sounds, but this time, one sound is simply dropped out rather than being changed to a different sound. An example is the pronunciation of Modern English probably as prob'ly.