Inventory - Raw Materials, Work-In-Progress, and Finished Goods
They usually just pick a number and say please give us a cost of goods sold of 30 %. there want to create some simple equations for analyzing the relationship between COGS, Volume and Net Profit. COGS = Cost/Price ignore inventory. Inventory is a current asset account found on the balance sheet consisting of all raw current assets, and thus it is excluded from the numerator in the quick ratio calculation. The ending balance of inventory depends on the volume of sales Sales Ending Inventory = Beginning Balance + Purchases – Cost of Goods Sold. To make the topic of Inventory and Cost of Goods Sold even easier to understand , we created a collection of premium materials called AccountingCoach PRO.
Ratios and Formulas in Customer Financial Analysis Financial statement analysis is a judgmental process. One of the primary objectives is identification of major changes in trends, and relationships and the investigation of the reasons underlying those changes. The judgment process can be improved by experience and the use of analytical tools. Probably the most widely used financial analysis technique is ratio analysis, the analysis of relationships between two or more line items on the financial statement.
Financial ratios are usually expressed in percentage or times. Generally, financial ratios are calculated for the purpose of evaluating aspects of a company's operations and fall into the following categories: A ratio can be computed from any pair of numbers.
Given the large quantity of variables included in financial statements, a very long list of meaningful ratios can be derived. That is the cost used to determine Gross Profit. Without enough Gross Profit a company can't pay it's operating expenses, such as salaries and wages, rent and utilities, etc. We will discuss Gross Profit a little more later in this section.
There are four methods commonly used to calculate a value for ending inventory. A company should select and use the method that best matches their merchandise and how it is sold.
But does that apply to each and every item?
Relationship between cost margin and sales volume - Discussions - Discussion - GuildSomm
What about a ream sheets of typing paper. Is it necessary to place a value on each and every sheet of paper? Most business would answer "No" to that question.
The cost of keeping that much detailed information would exceed the usefulness, or benefit, of the information. We call that the cost-benefit rule. The cost of an accounting system or any other venture should be outweighed by the benefits, or it is not cost-effective to follow that course of action.
For most companies, the Specific Identification method is far too costly and the additional information that could be gained is of little value. Most companies use a cost flow assumption. This simply means that the flow of inventory follows a certain pattern. Companies will buy merchandise in a manner consistent with the merchandise itself.
Relationship between cost margin and sales volume
For instance, a grocery store will buy only the amount of milk it can sell in a week. Because milk spoils quickly, the store will buy small amounts each week, and make sure the milk it has for sale is the freshest milk available. Further, one gallon of milk is basically the same as the next gallon with only minor differences.
We say that milk is a homogeneous product. All the milk can be viewed as a single product group, that follows an almost identical weekly sales and spoilage pattern.
- Cost of Goods Sold (COGS)
- Days in Inventory
- Inventories and Cost of Goods Sold
The grocery will use a flow assumption to value its milk inventory at the end of the year. They will use FIFO, assuming that the milk on hand is the last milk that was bought during the year.Inventory and Cost of Goods Sold: FIFO
The LIFO method would assume that the milk bought in the first week of the year is the same milk on the shelf at the end of the year. Obviously year old milk will probably be coagulated into a solid, stinking block of green muck.
So we know that LIFO would be an incorrect flow assumption for milk.
So when will the LIFO assumption will be valid? Let's now picture a clothing store.
Formula The cost of goods sold formula is calculated by adding purchases for the period to the beginning inventory and subtracting the ending inventory for the period. The cost of goods sold equation might seem a little strange at first, but it makes sense. Remember, we want to calculate the cost of the merchandise that was sold during the year, so we have to start with our beginning inventory. We then add any new inventory that was purchased during the period.
We only want to look at the cost of the inventory sold during the period. Thus, we have to subtract out the ending inventory to leave only the inventory that was sold. Shane specializes in sportswear and other outdoor gear and requires a good supply of inventory to sell during the holiday seasons. Shane is finishing his year-end accounting and calculated the following inventory numbers: This information will not only help Shane plan out purchasing for the next year, it will also help him evaluate his costs.
For instance, Shane can list the costs for each of his product categories and compare them with the sales. This comparison will give him the selling margin for each product, so Shane can analyze which products he is paying too much for and which products he is making the most money on. The COGS definition state that only inventory sold in the current period should be included.