Historical relationship of physical education to health and fitness

Physical education - Wikipedia

historical relationship of physical education to health and fitness

Fitness and Health History of Sport Journal of Physical Activity and Health Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal Sport History Review. Regular physical activity does not alter the process of are components of health-related fitness historically assessed in. Physical education, also known as Phys Ed., PE, gym, or gym class, and known in many . Research has shown that there is a positive correlation between brain . A History of Women's Physical Education in Twentieth-Century America.

Jackson received an EdD from the University of Houston in He has been an associate editor for Medicine and Science in Sports, section editor for the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, and associate editor for the National Strength and Conditioning Association Journal.

In his leisure time, Jackson enjoys exercising, surfing the Web, and watching classic movies. Morrow has authored more than articles and chapters on exercise physiology, measurement, and computer use.

Brief History of Physical Education

In addition to teaching, Dr. Morrow was editor in chief of the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport from to He has earned state, national, and international awards for his teaching, research, and service activities. He enjoys family activities and golf. Hill has taught exercise physiology for more than 15 years. He began at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill inand then in he moved to the University of North Texas, where he is currently a professor of exercise physiology and director of the exercise physiology lab.

Physical education

Prior to teaching, Hill spent nearly seven years working as a fitness program coordinator and researcher in adult fitness and cardiac rehabilitation. He received his PhD in physical education with an emphasis in exercise physiology from the University of Georgia in A former track and field athlete, Hill held the Canadian record in the mile from to Physical education may make a more significant contribution to young people's regular physical activity participation if lessons are planned and delivered with MVPA goals in mind.

Introduction Regular physical activity participation throughout childhood provides immediate health benefits, by positively effecting body composition and musculo-skeletal development Malina and Bouchard,and reducing the presence of coronary heart disease risk factors Gutin et al.

historical relationship of physical education to health and fitness

In recognition of these health benefits, physical activity guidelines for children and youth have been developed by the Health Education Authority [now Health Development Agency HDA ] Biddle et al. The primary recommendation advocates the accumulation of 1 hour's physical activity per day of at least moderate intensity i. A secondary recommendation is that children take part in activities that help develop and maintain musculo-skeletal health, on at least two occasions per week Biddle et al.

historical relationship of physical education to health and fitness

This target may be addressed through weight-bearing activities that focus on developing muscular strength, endurance and flexibility, and bone health. School physical education PE provides a context for regular and structured physical activity participation.

To this end a common justification for PE's place in the school curriculum is that it contributes to children's health and fitness Physical Education Association of the United Kingdom, ; Zeigler, The extent to which this rationale is accurate is arguable Koslow, ; Michaud and Andres, and has seldom been tested.

However, there would appear to be some truth in the supposition because PE is commonly highlighted as a significant contributor to help young people achieve their daily volume of physical activity Biddle et al. These include three PE-associated objectives, two of which relate to increasing the number of schools providing and students participating in daily PE classes.

However, research evidence suggests that this criterion is somewhat ambitious and, as a consequence, is rarely achieved during regular PE lessons Stratton, ; US Department of Health and Human Services, ; Levin et al.

The potential difficulties of achieving such a target are associated with the diverse aims of PE. These aims are commonly accepted by physical educators throughout the world International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education,although their interpretation, emphasis and evaluation may differ between countries.

According to Simons-Morton Simons-Morton,PE's overarching goals should be 1 for students to take part in appropriate amounts of physical activity during lessons, and 2 become educated with the knowledge and skills to be physically active outside school and throughout life.

These aspects may help cultivate students' behavioural and personal skills to enable them to become lifelong physical activity participants [ thus meeting PE goal number 2 Simons-Morton, ].

  • Health, fitness and exercise

However, to achieve this, these aspects should be delivered within a curriculum which provides a diverse range of physical activity experiences so students can make informed decisions about which ones they enjoy and feel competent at. However, evidence suggests that team sports dominate English PE curricula, yet bear limited relation to the activities that young people participate in, out of school and after compulsory education Sport England, ; Fairclough et al.

In order to promote life-long physical activity a broader base of PE activities needs to be offered to reinforce the fact that it is not necessary for young people to be talented sportspeople to be active and healthy.

historical relationship of physical education to health and fitness

While motor, cognitive, social, spiritual, cultural and moral development are valid areas of learning, they can be inconsistent with maximizing participation in health-enhancing physical activity [i. PE goal number 1 Simons-Morton, ].

BBC Bitesize - GCSE Physical Education - Health, fitness and exercise - WJEC - Revision 1

Moreover, it is possible that the lack of policy, curriculum development or teacher expertise in this area contributes to the considerable variation in physical activity levels during PE Stratton, a. However, objective research evidence suggests that this is mainly due to differences in pedagogical variables [i.

Borys, ; Stratton, a ]. Furthermore, PE activity participation may be influenced by inter-individual factors. For example, activity has been reported to be lower among students with greater body mass and body fat Brooke et al. In addition, highly skilled students are generally more active than their lesser skilled peers Li and Dunham, ; Stratton, b and boys tend to engage in more PE activity than girls Stratton, b ; McKenzie et al.

Such inter-individual factors are likely to have significant implications for pedagogical practice and therefore warrant further investigation. In accordance with Simons-Morton's Simons-Morton, first proposed aim of PE, the purpose of this study was to assess English students' physical activity levels during high school PE. The data were considered in relation to recommended levels of physical activity Biddle et al. Specific attention was paid to differences between sex and ability groups, as well as during different PE activities.

historical relationship of physical education to health and fitness

Method Subjects and settings One hundred and twenty-two students 62 boys and 60 girls from five state high schools in Merseyside, England participated in this study.