Planning- Cognitive Skill
Planning can be defined as ability to "think about the future" or mentally typical in frontal lobe disorders (especially related to disorders that affect the prefrontal of cognitive skills related to our executive functions and other brain functions. the necessary relation of an anatomical region with a cognitive function. To determine if defined and limited focal frontal lobe lesions (see Stuss et al.,. for. In phylogeny as in ontogeny, the association cortex of the frontal lobe, also known of the prefrontal cortex correlate with the development of cognitive functions.
Changing one's behavioral response to meet a new goal or modify an objective is a higher level skill that requires a fusion of executive functions including self-regulation, and accessing prior knowledge and experiences. According to this model, the executive system of the human brain provides for the cross-temporal organization of behavior towards goals and the future and coordinates actions and strategies for everyday goal-directed tasks.
Essentially, this system permits humans to self-regulate their behavior so as to sustain action and problem solving toward goals specifically and the future more generally. Thus, executive function deficits pose serious problems for a person's ability to engage in self-regulation over time to attain their goals and anticipate and prepare for the future.
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While this model may broadly appeal to clinicians and researchers to help identify and assess certain executive functioning components, it lacks a distinct theoretical basis and relatively few attempts at validation.
We assume that the PFC serves a specific function in cognitive control: They provide bias signals throughout much of the rest of the brain, affecting not only visual processes but also other sensory modalities, as well as systems responsible for response execution, memory retrieval, emotional evaluation, etc. The aggregate effect of these bias signals is to guide the flow of neural activity along pathways that establish the proper mappings between inputs, internal states, and outputs needed to perform a given task.
Miller and Cohen draw explicitly upon an earlier theory of visual attention that conceptualises perception of visual scenes in terms of competition among multiple representations — such as colors, individuals, or objects. For example, imagine that you are waiting at a busy train station for a friend who is wearing a red coat.
You are able to selectively narrow the focus of your attention to search for red objects, in the hope of identifying your friend. Desimone and Duncan argue that the brain achieves this by selectively increasing the gain of neurons responsive to the color red, such that output from these neurons is more likely to reach a downstream processing stageand, as a consequence, to guide behaviour. According to Miller and Cohen, this selective attention mechanism is in fact just a special case of cognitive control — one in which the biasing occurs in the sensory domain.
According to Miller and Cohen's model, the PFC can exert control over input sensory or output response neuronsas well as over assemblies involved in memoryor emotion.
Cognitive control is mediated by reciprocal PFC connectivity with the sensory and motor corticesand with the limbic system. Within their approach, thus, the term 'cognitive control' is applied to any situation where a biasing signal is used to promote task-appropriate responding, and control thus becomes a crucial component of a wide range of psychological constructs such as selective attentionerror monitoring, decision-makingmemory inhibitionand response inhibition.
Miyake and Friedman's model[ edit ] Miyake and Friedman's theory of executive functions proposes that there are three aspects of executive functions: In other words, aspects of updating, inhibition, and shifting are related, yet each remains a distinct entity.
First, updating is defined as the continuous monitoring and quick addition or deletion of contents within one's working memory. Second, inhibition is one's capacity to supersede responses that are prepotent in a given situation. Third, shifting is one's cognitive flexibility to switch between different tasks or mental states. Miyake and Friedman also suggest that the current body of research in executive functions suggest four general conclusions about these skills.
The first conclusion is the unity and diversity aspects of executive functions. The posterior DLPFC creates an appropriate attentional set, or rules for the brain to accomplish the current goal. For the Stroop task, this involves activating the areas of the brain involved in color perception, and not those involved in word comprehension. It counteracts biases and irrelevant information, like the fact that the semantic perception of the word is more salient to most people than the color in which it is printed.
Human Brain Functions and CogniFit
The task-relevant information must be separated from other sources of information in the task. In the example, this means focusing on the ink color and not the word. The posterior dorsal anterior cingulate cortex ACC is next in the cascade, and it is responsible for response selection.
This is where the decision is made whether you will say green the written word and the incorrect answer or red the font color and correct answer. Following the response, the anterior dorsal ACC is involved in response evaluation, deciding whether you were correct or incorrect. Activity in this region increases when the probability of an error is higher.
The activity of any of the areas involved in this model depends on the efficiency of the areas that came before it. Researchers had participants complete an auditory version of the Stroop task, in which either the location or semantic meaning of a directional word had to be attended to. Participants that either had a strong bias toward spatial or semantic information different cognitive styles were then recruited to participate in the task. As predicted, participants that has a strong bias toward spatial information had more difficulty paying attention to the semantic information and elicited increased electrophysiological activity from the ACC.
Frontal lobe - Wikipedia
A similar activity pattern was also found for participants that had a strong bias toward verbal information when they tried to attend to spatial information. This process allows us to understand and relate to the world around more effectively. We are constantly using our brain functions - It's impossible to do almost anything without engaging at least some of the cognitive functions that we have available to us.
For example, Do you want some breakfast? Thinking about starting a book? Do you have to drive anywhere? Are you having an interesting conversation with your friends? All of the activities that we do everyday require millions of connections and complex mental calculations between the different parts of the brain in order to properly immerse ourselves in the world around us. What are the main cognitive functions? Often times when we talk about superior cognitive functions, we're referring to the cognitive skills that we use in order to understand and interact with the world.
Although sometimes we study them as separate ideas, we have to remember that cognitive functions are always interrelated and that sometimes they overlap. We'll take a look at the main brain functions: Attention is a complex mental process that cannot be reduced to one simple definition, one concrete anatomical structure, and that cannot be assessed by one single test as it encompasses diverse processes.
To simplify, attention is the cognitive or brain function that we use to select between stimuli that reach our brain simultaneously, both external smells, sounds, images In reality, it is a whole set of processes that vary in complexity and allow us to carry-out the rest of our cognitive functions well.
Attention can broken into different types depending on its complexity. The ability to respond to a stimulus. The ability to hold attention during a period of at least 3 minutes.
It is was we more commonly call "concentration".
When we read a book we are concentrating. The ability that allows us to maintain attention on a task and inhibit distractions from the environment around us, like background noise or activities. Following the previous example, selective attention allows us to read a book while listening to music or the TV on. The mental flexibility that allows us to change our focus from one task to another fluidly.
For example, when we are reading and a song we like comes on, we are able to stop for a moment while we listen or sing, and then quickly get back to the book where we left off.065 The Anatomy and Functions of the Frontal Lobe
The ability to respond to more than one task at a time, or do two things at once. For example, when we talk to a friend while write a text to someone else, or when we talk on the phone while cooking. There is not one single anatomic structure that is in charge of attention, but there are actually various circuits that are implied in this process. There are an additional three systems: Reticular activating system RAS or arousal system: This is the state or base level of consciousness that optimizes the processing of sensory stimuli that reach the cerebral cortex.
It is made up of the reticular activation system, the thalamus, the limbic system, the basal ganglia, and the frontal cortex. Permits the orientation and localization of stimuli, especially visual. It is used in perception, visual-spatial attention, the processing of new information The main structures related to it are in the posterior parietal cortex, the lateral pulvinar, the hippocampus, and the anterior cingulate.
Allows us to direct our attention to the action. It regulated and controls the make complex cognitive tasks possible. This system makes up part of the anterior cingulate, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the orbital-frontal cortex, the neostriatum, the suplemental motor area, and the ventral tegmental area.